Space exploration - that dream that occupies the thoughts of many people for hundreds of years.In those far-distant days when people could see the stars and planets, relying only on his vision, he wanted to know what harbor bottomless black abyss of the dark sky overhead.Dreams coming true recently.
Practically all leading space powers immediately began a kind of "arms race" and here: scientists have tried to get ahead of their colleagues before their conclusions and testing different devices for space exploration.However, the clearance was still: the program "Apollo-Soyuz" was to show the friendship between the USSR and the USA, as well as their desire to work together to pave the way for mankind to the stars.
abbreviated name of the program - the ASTP.Flying is also known as the "handshake in space."In general, the "Apollo-Soyuz" was a bold experimental flight "Soyuz-19" and the American "Apollo."Members of the expedition had to overcome many difficulties, the most significant of which was completely different design docking stations.But on the "agenda" was docked it!
fact quite normal contacts between scientists of the Soviet Union and the United States began in the time of launch of the first artificial satellites.Agreement on a common, peaceful space exploration was signed in 1962.At the same time, researchers were able to share the results of programs and some ideas in the space industry.
first meeting of researchers
from the Soviet Union and the United States initiated the collaboration were: President of the Academy of Sciences (AS), the famous MV Keldysh, and the director of the National Aerospace Agency (in the world known as NASA) Dr. Payne.
first meeting of the delegations from the United States and the Soviet Union took place in late autumn 1970.American mission led by the Director of the Centre managed by the Johnson Space Flight Dr. R. Gilruth.On the Soviet side was chaired by the Council for the study of international space (the program "Intercosmos") Academician BN Petrov.Immediately it was formed joint working groups, whose main task was to discuss the possible compatibility of structural units of the Soviet and American spacecraft.
next year already in Houston, organized a new meeting, which was led by the already known to us, BN Petrov and R. Gilruth.Team considered the basic requirements for the design features of manned spacecraft, as well as fully coordinated a number of issues in relation to standards of life support systems.It then began to discuss the possibility of joint flight, followed by the crew dock.
As you can see, the program "Soyuz-Apollo", which was the year of the triumph of world cosmonautics, demanded a review of the vast amount of technical and political rules and regulations.
conclusions about the expediency of joint manned flights
In 1972, the Soviet and American sides once again staged a meeting at which was generalized and systematized all the work done during this period.The final decision about the advisability of joint manned flight was positive for the program have been chosen already familiar ships.Thus was born the project "Apollo-Soyuz".
It was in May 1972.It signed a historic agreement between our country and America, providing for joint peaceful exploration of outer space.In addition, the parties have finally decided on the technical side of the issue of flight "Apollo-Soyuz".This time the delegation was headed by the Soviet side was academician KD Bushuyev, Americans represented the Dr. G. Lunney.
During the meeting, they identified with the goals, the achievement of which will be dedicated to all further work:
- test interoperability of systems management in the implementation of convergence ships in space.
- Checking in "field" conditions of automatic and manual docking.
- testing and tuning techniques designed to make the transition astronauts from ship to ship.
- Finally, the accumulation of invaluable experience in joint manned space flight.When the "Soyuz-19" spaceship docked with the "Apollo", experts have received a number of valuable information that they were widely used throughout the US lunar program.
Other areas of work
specialists, among other things, wanted to test the ability to orientation in space is already docked ships, as well as to test the stability of communication systems on different machines.Finally, it is crucial to perform interoperability testing between Soviet and American systems of flight control.
Here's how evolved the main events at the time:
- At the end of May 1975 the final session, to discuss some organizational issues.It signed the final document of the complete readiness for the flight.It was signed by Academician VA Kotelnikov on the Soviet side, the Americans have a document endorsed George. Lowe.Launch date was set for July 15, 1975.
- At exactly 15 hours and 20 minutes from the Baikonur cosmodrome was successfully launched Soviet "Soyuz-19".
- With booster "Saturn-1B" starts "Apollo."Time - 22 hours 50 minutes.Launch Site - Cape Canaveral.
- Through two days after the completion of all preparatory work, in 19 hours 12 minutes "Soyuz-19" docked.In 1975 it opened a new era of space exploration.
- Exactly two turns of "Union" in the orbit of the Earth has been made the new dock "Soyuz-Apollo", after which they flew in this position two more turns.After some time, the device is completely dispersed, fully complete the program of studies.
Generally the flight was:
- Soviet "Soyuz 19" has spent 5 days in orbit, 22 hours and 31 minutes.
- «Apollo" held in flight 9 days, 1 hour and 28 minutes.
- The ships docked position held exactly 46 hours and 36 minutes.
And now is the time to remember names of crew members of the US and Soviet ships, which overcame a lot of difficulties, we were able to fully implement all stages of such an important space program.
American crew were:
- Thomas Stafford.The commander of the US crew.An experienced astronaut, the fourth flight.
- Vance Brand.He piloted the command module, the first flight.
- Donald Slayton.It was he who was responsible for the operation responsible docking, it was also his first flight.
The structure of the Soviet cosmonaut crew consisted of the following:
- Alexei Leonov was the commander.
- Valery Kubasov was onboard engineer.
Both Soviet cosmonauts in orbit already happened once, so that the flight "Soyuz-Apollo" has become for them a second.
What experiments have been carried out in the course of joint flight?
- experiment was conducted, includes the study of the solar eclipse: "Apollo" shut the light, while at the "Union" study and describe the effects arising from this.
- studied ultraviolet absorption, during which crews measure the amount of atomic oxygen and nitrogen in the orbit of the planet.
- In addition, there have been several experiments in which researchers examined how weightlessness, absence of a magnetic field and other conditions of space affect the flow of biological rhythms.
- for microbiologists huge interest is the study of the program of mutual exchange and transfer of microorganisms in conditions of weightlessness between the two ships (via docking station).
- Finally, the flight "Soyuz-Apollo" possible to investigate processes in metallic and semiconductor materials in such specific terms.It should be noted that the "father" of this kind of study has become well-known among metallurgists KP Gurov, who proposed that these works.
Some technical details
should be noted that the US ship as a breathing gas, pure oxygen, while the ship was in the domestic environment, its composition is identical to that of the Earth.Thus, the direct transition from ship to ship was impossible.Specifically to address this issue with the American ship was launched a special transition compartment.
should be noted that the Americans subsequently took advantage of this operating time when creating their lunar module.When changing the pressure in the "Apollo" is slightly lifted, and the "Union", on the other hand, have reduced, at the same time raising the content of oxygen in the breathing mix to 40%.As a result, people have the opportunity to be in a transitional module (before entering the alien ship) not eight hours, and only 30 minutes.
the way, if you are interested in this story, visit the Museum of Cosmonautics in Moscow.It is devoted to this subject a huge stand.
General History of Manned Space Flight
This article is not by chance touched upon the history of manned space flight.All of the above described program would be impossible in principle, if not pre-development in this area, which accumulated experience for decades.Who "paved the way", who have been made possible thanks to manned space flights?
As you know, April 12, 1961 an event occurred that had a really global significance.On that day, Yuri Gagarin made the first in the history of the world manned flight aboard the "Vostok".
second country that has carried out similar, became the United States.Their spaceship "Mercury-Redstone 3", piloted by Alan Shepard, was launched into orbit a month later, May 5, 1961.In February, he launched from Cape Canaveral has "Mercury-Atlas 6", carrying the John Glenn.
first records and achievements
Two years after Gagarin flew into space the first woman.It was Valentina Tereshkova.She flew alone on the ship "Vostok-6".The launch was made June 16, 1963.In America, the first representative of the fairer sex, who visited in orbit, Sally Ride became.She was a member of the mixed crew, which flew in 1983.
For March 18, 1965 was broken another record: in the space left Alexei Leonov.The first woman, who was in open space, Svetlana Savitskaya became that it has carried out in 1984.Note that now women are included in all without exception of ISS, as were gathered all the necessary information on the physiology of the female body in space, and therefore the health of the astronauts is not in danger.
The longest flight
To this day, the longest single spaceflight considered a 437-night stay in orbit cosmonaut Valery Polyakov.He remained on board the "Mir" from January 1994 to March 1995.The record for a common set of days spent in orbit, once again belongs to the domestic astronaut - Sergei Krikalev.
As for the group flight, about 364 days of flying cosmonauts and astronauts from September 1989 to August 1999.Since it has been proven that a person can theoretically endure for flight to Mars.Now researchers are more concerned about the problem of psychological compatibility of the crew.
information on the history of space shuttle flight
To date, the only country that has more or less successful operating experience of the reusable space shuttle series "Space Shuttle" is the United States.The first flight of the spacecraft in this series, "Columbia" came later, exactly two decades after Gagarin's flight, April 12, 1981.USSR first and only time launched "Buran" in 1988.That flight is also unique in that took place in a fully automatic mode, although it is possible and manual piloting.
The exhibition, which shows the whole history of the "Soviet space shuttle", shows Space Museum in Moscow.We advise to visit, as there are so many interesting things!
highest orbit, at the highest point of passage reaches 1374 km, it has been the American crew of the ship "Gemini 11".This happened back in 1966.In addition, the "shuttles" are often used for repair and maintenance of the telescope "Hubble" when they perform fairly complex manned missions at an altitude of about 600 kilometers.More frequently, the flight of the spacecraft's orbit passes at an altitude of 200-300 kilometers.
Note that immediately after the operation "shuttles" ISS orbit gradually raised to a height of 400 kilometers.This is due to the fact that the shuttles were able to produce an effective maneuvering at an altitude of only 300 kilometers, but the heights of the station was not too appropriate because of the high density of the surrounding space (on space standards, of course).
to perform any flights beyond the Earth's orbit?
beyond Earth's orbit to fly only the Americans, the task was executed the program "Apollo".The spacecraft in 1968 orbited the moon.Note that since July 16, 1969, Americans carried out their lunar program, during which it was carried out "moon landing".In late 1972, the program was terminated, which caused outrage not only American, but also the Soviet scientists who empathized with their colleagues.
Note that in the USSR there were many similar programs.Despite the almost full completion of many of these "good" for their implementation has not been received.
Other "space" of the country
China became the third space power.It happened Oct. 15, 2003, when the spacecraft "Shenzhou-5" was released in the vastness of space.In general, China's space program dates back to the 70s of the last century, but then all planned flights had not been committed.
At the end of the 90s his steps in that direction did the Europeans and the Japanese.But their projects for creating reusable manned spacecraft were stopped after a few years of development, as the Soviet-Russian "Soyuz" was easier, more reliable and cheaper, resulting economic unreasonableness works.
Space tourism and "private space»
Since 1978 on ships and stations of the USSR / Russian Federation and the United States to fly astronauts from dozens of countries.In addition, recently gaining momentum so-called "space tourism" when normal (unusual for financial possibilities) a person can visit the ISS.In the recent past the beginning of the development of similar programs also stated China.
But the real excitement generated program Ansari X-Prize, which was launched in 1996.By its terms required that a private company (without government support) to the end of 2004 was able to raise (double) to a height of 100 kilometers of the ship with a crew of three.The award was more than respectable - 10 million dollars.More than two dozen companies and even individuals immediately began to develop their projects.
Thus began a new history of astronautics, in which the "discoverer" of the cosmos could theoretically become any person.
first successes "privateers»
So how to design their devices did not need to go really space, costs took a hundred times smaller.First private rocket plane and SpaceShipOne was launched in the early summer of 2004.To create his company Scaled Composites.
Orientation meeting "conspiracy theories»
It should be noted that many projects (almost everything in general) based not on some developments of private "nuggets", and works on the V-2 and the Soviet "Buran", alldocumentation which, after 90 years of "suddenly" suddenly became available to the foreign public.Some adherents daring theories claim that the Soviet Union held (unsuccessfully) the first manned launch as early as 1957-1959.
There are also unconfirmed reports that the Nazis were developed in the 40s projects intercontinental missiles to attack America.Rumor has it that some test pilots were still able to reach a height of 100 kilometers, making it (if indeed they were) the first cosmonaut.