history of India is replete with periods of decline and prosperity.This amazing country that grew rich by using its natural treasures, then quickly fall into poverty, he found himself under the fifth successive conquerors.These include, and the British, who ruled there recently.In general, India - a unique case (the first in modern history), when the rather big size country has been completely transformed into a colony.
What is even more interesting, the British managed to capture India is relatively easy, largely taking advantage of the contradictions and corruption among the local nobility.Finally, they occupied the country in 1849, when won the Sikhs in Punjab.But management was organized by India?After all, experience in dealing with such a huge colony has not been anybody!
beginning of the establishment of the administrative apparatus
took possession of India started back East India Company.Simply put, the victory over the Sikhs was more an act of revealing, since the country became a colony long before those events.The first Governor-General became (1774-1785) W. Hastings, a protege of the merchants.
long time they ruled the newfound colony, at its discretion, and the metropolis of such arbitrariness perepadalo not so much.Everything changed after was exemplary trial thus Hastings, after which traders have become firmly dismissed from the government.
Since the government of India was organized by the leadership of the East India Company, which was far from thrilled by this turn of events, they began to press, referring to the need to entrust the reins of power in the hands of the Queen and Parliament.
By 1813 the company had only the status of the administrative control center, which is all done in order to as much wealth and resources to send to the UK.
consequences of mismanagement
It was organized by the government of India during this period?In general, nothing special was, was appointed Governor-General, as well as provincial governors.They were responsible for collecting taxes, for the suppression of uprisings.All administrative structure has been "charged" with the other English colonies.But once again it is worth repeating that India - the country is large and very complicated.
British practically disregarded or her caste, no differences between the peoples inhabiting this territory, not to mention their religious preferences.Results inept politicians do not have to wait long, as manifested in the Mutiny, which began in May 1857.
It is, incidentally, happened again because of disregard for the English to the faith and culture of their conquered subjects: it was strange to expect anything else after the introduction of packages for patrons soaked beef fat.And it is in India, where the cow - the incarnation of God on earth!
Disbanding trading company
After severe suppression of the Sepoy Rebellion (there is a corresponding picture at the Vereshchagin) had to be found guilty.More precisely, the "scapegoats."So the culprit was the East India Company, which was disbanded immediately.This happened in 1858.
At that time, India is officially at the normal rights of citizenship, they took part of the British Empire.Of course, the Empress was proclaimed Queen Victoria, at the time reigning on the throne.Governor-general's post was abolished, but there was Viceroy of India.Solve pressing problems in the management of the colony (India it still remained) was entrusted to the newly created line ministry in parliament.There have been many more important reforms.
As might be expected, sipayskie shelves were completely disbanded.Significantly increased the number of English themselves in the army, they are widely started using mercenaries from among the Sikhs and Gurkhas.For British India has at its disposal a powerful force that could "roll out" any dissatisfaction before it turned to into new uprising.
Queen has promised to respect the continuity of kinship among local governors, agreeing not to impede the succession to the throne.The British finally started to take into account the characteristics of the caste system, banned arbitrarily appointed managing to raise the cost of renting land.That's how it was organized by the government of India in those days.
But all this was only a screen: in 1835 it was decided to educate the sons of the Indian nobility in England.To them, the Indians remaining blood in the shower turned into English.Within two decades, began to work Calcutta, Bombay and Madras University, where he forged a new elite.Across India has steadily increased the number of different schools and colleges, which taught by English professor in the English language well.
And that's not to mention the fact that many of the offspring of wealthy families in particular were educated in the same Oxford.So there was a truly British in India more or less important positions in local governments receiving such people, who all were in agreement with the policy of the mother country, and do not stand on ceremony, if necessary, with their same tribe.