Alkaline phosphatase is a certain enzyme which belongs to the group of hydrolases.This enzyme can be observed in all parts of the human body.
particularly prevalent active enzyme in osteoblasts, intestinal mucosa shell in the mammary gland, placenta, bile ducts in the walls.
Types of alkaline phosphatase
phosphatase is divided into several types:
alkaline phosphatase, as well as all enzymes similar to it, we need to within the body of a man held a variety of chemical reactions.Required minimum amount of alkaline phosphatase to carry out these reactions.And if in the body there is any violation, it could mean that the alkaline phosphatase increased.Reasons for increasing the enzyme can be quite different.
How does alkaline phosphatase
This enzyme reaction was carried out defosfolirovaniya.This reaction is cleavage of phosphate from organic substances, held at the level of molecules.Alkaline phosphatase in the blood has a constant certain concentration.The enzyme is capable of transferring phosphorus through the cell membrane.In addition, phosphatase - a measure of standards of calcium-phosphorus metabolism.The biggest activity of the enzyme is shown in the pH environment, range 8,6-10,1.Hence the name - is alkaline.
Alkaline phosphatase in the blood
range reading is normal blood level of alkaline phosphatase is quite wide.Readings vary from 44 IU / L to 147 IU / L.Do not immediately panic if alkaline phosphatase increased.The reasons may be harmless.For example, the rate among pregnant women is usually slightly overvalued.He also overestimated and adolescents who opened the stage of puberty.All this is due to placental growth or bone, and not to indicate different deflections in the human body.Also measure phosphatase depends on the age and sex of the person.
At the moment there is no standardized methodology, so the variation of performance standards depends on the reagents that are used in the laboratory for research.
alkaline phosphatase.Performance standards
One of the options to define abnormalities in the body is alkaline phosphatase.The rate for women, men and children is a bit different, it should be noted.The level of this enzyme in the body for women are slightly lower than the figure for men.While children indicator of this enzyme is much greater than that of adults.
normal values of alkaline phosphatase in the blood plasma of a child:
- newborn: 245-255 U / L;
- in children aged 1 to 9 years: 345-355 U / L;
- in children aged 10 to 15 years: 275-285 U / L;
- adolescents, aged 16 to 19 years: 145-155 U / L.
- aged 21 to 30 years: 100-110 U / L;
- aged from 30 to 45 years: 110-120 U / L;
- aged from 46 to 54 years: 120-130 U / L;
- aged 55 to 70 years: 135-145 U / L;
- over the age of '71: 180-190 U / L.
In adults, depending on the gender, differs slightly alkaline phosphatase.
The rate for women is:
- aged 21 to 30 years: 80-90 U / L;
- aged from 30 to 45 years: 90-100 U / L;
- aged from 46 to 54 years: 105-115 U / L;
- aged 55 to 70 years: 125-135 U / L;
- older than '71 155 -165ed / l;
can be concluded that men with respect to women's figures slightly increased alkaline phosphatase.The rate among women is less than men's rate of approximately 20 U / L.
reasons for increased rates of alkaline phosphatase
has been said, on which depends the alkaline phosphatase.Norm increased, and this may not pose a risk to health.But it happens and vice versa, when the increase of the index is the first and precise warning that the body of the patient are observed significant violations.
On increase in the reporting of the enzyme can affect:
the part of the biliary tract and liver:
- a tumor of the bile duct;
- jaundice which can cause obstruction of the bile ducts;
- liver cancer;
- scarring of the bile ducts provoked by surgical interventions;
- stones in the bile ducts;
- cancer of the stomach or pancreas;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- infectious mononucleosis;
- any origin hepatitis.In this disease in about 3-fold increased alkaline phosphatase.
reasons on the part of the affected bone:
- Paget's disease.This disease is characterized by abnormal growth of bones, as well as breach of certain areas of the bone structure.In this disease there are very high levels of the enzyme under consideration;
- bone tumor;
- osteosarcoma, which is a malignant tumor on the bone;
- softening of the bones, provoked by calcium deficiency (osteomalacia).
- myocardial infarction;
- hyperparathyroidism, which is a hormonal disease, when there is an excess of parathyroid hormone, parathyroid formed.Because of what it is leaching of calcium from the bones;
- intestinal perforation (through injury);
- ulcerative colitis.
reasons for low levels of alkaline phosphatase
not always considered a deviation is increased alkaline phosphatase.The rate of women and men may tend to diverge and down.
at a reduced level phosphatase may affect:
- blood transfusions in large doses;
- severe anemia;
- hypothyroidism (low thyroid function);
- gipofostataziya (congenital rare disease that provokes a softening of the bones);
- insufficient amount of zinc and magnesium in the body;
- failure of the placenta (in pregnant women).
What affects the result
- during pregnancy, the placenta contains alkaline phosphatase.The rate of women in this period is not considered excessive;
- fractures also noted an increased rate of alkaline phosphatase;
- since children and adolescents experienced rapid bone growth, an indicator of the enzyme increases under discussion;
- raise phosphatase in the blood can and some drugs, such as "Paracetamol" "Aspirin", "allopurinol", various antibiotics and a variety of other drugs;
- level data defosfolirovaniya enzyme may experience higher after cooling to take the blood test.
at a reduced level of the enzyme can affect oral contraceptives.
assaying for alkaline phosphatase
During capture analysis of alkaline phosphatase in blood serum donor is added to the specific reactants, which react to the phosphatase.Then, using precise methods, measure the concentration of the resulting products.In each fabric, whether intestine, placenta or liver contains a certain kind of alkaline phosphatase.At the time of analysis is measured by specific enzyme concentration.
to hand over the analysis of a blood sample to the enzyme, the patient will take a few minutes.In some cases, people have the gut after eating intensively produced alkaline phosphatase.In this case, the test results can be skewed.Therefore, the patient can not take food or drink water before taking this analysis.
Thanks to modern laboratory methods, test results can be obtained after a few hours.
Based on all the data, one can conclude that the minimum alkaline phosphatase in the blood - the norm.Increasing the enzyme may like to warn about any deviations or violations, and absolutely no cause for concern.In any case, it is not the last index changes in the human body.