history of Russia more than a thousand years, although until the state on its territorrii lived very different tribes.Last desyativekovoy period can be divided into several stages.All the rulers of Russia from Rurik to Putin - the people who were the true sons and daughters of their eras.
main historical stages of development of Russian
Historians consider this the most convenient classification:
- reign Prince of Novgorod (862- 882 years);
- the reign of the Great prince of Kiev (882- 1263 years);
- the reign of Prince Vladimir (1157- 1425);
- Grand Duchy of Moscow (1283- 1547);
- the period of the kings and emperors (from 1547 to 1917);
- Soviet period (1917 - 1991);
- under President (1991-present).
This classification is a lot to say even a reader who is not strong in the country's history.Characteristics of Russian rulers of a given period is largely dependent on their modern era.Several times changed dislocation main centers of political life of Russia.Until 1547 in Russia was ruled by princes, then began a period of monarhizatsii state, tragically ended in 1917.Almost the entire XX century was marked by the hegemony of the Communist Party, as well as the emergence of new independent states of the former Soviet Union.
Chronology of Russian rulers from 862 prior to the period of fragmentation (Great Novgorod and Kiev principality)
results isssledovany historical materials of the period allows us to trace the order of stay princes in power.It is also possible to establish the date of the board of governors of Russia in the period.So:
- Rurik ruled from 862 to 879 years;
- Prophetic Oleg was in power from 879 to 912 years;
- Igor was in the prince's career following 33 years old, killed in the year 945;
- Olga, Grand Duchess (945- 964);
- warrior prince Svyatoslav (son of Igor and Olga) rules 8 years until his death on the battlefield;
- Yaropolk Svyatoslavovych (972- 980);
- Baptist of Rus, Vladimir Red Sun (980- 1015);
- Yaroslav the Wise (1016- 1054);
- from 1054 to 1068 when power was Izjaslav Yaroslavovich;
- with 1068 for 1078 years, the list of Russia's rulers enlarged by several names (Vseslav Bryachislavovich, Izjaslav Yaroslavovich, Svyatoslav and Vsevolod Yaroslavovich, in 1078 again the rules Izjaslav Yaroslavovich)
- 1078 was marked by a stabilization of the political scene before 1093Vsevolod Yaroslavovich rules;
- Sviatopolk Izyaslavovich was on the throne from 1093 for 1113 years;
- Vladimir, nicknamed Monomakh (1113- 1125) - one of the best princes of Kievan Rus;
- then 7 years on the throne was the son of Monomakh Mstislav;
- from 1132 to 1139 the authorities had Yaropolk Vladimirovich.
all Russian rulers from Rurik to Putin, who lived and ruled during this period and up to the present time, the main task saw the prosperity of the country and strengthen the country's role in the European arena.Another thing is that each of them was on his way to the goal, sometimes in a completely different direction than their predecessors.
period of fragmentation of Kievan Rus
In the days of feudal fragmentation of Rus on the main changes were frequent princely throne.None of the princes did not leave a significant mark in the history of Russia.By the middle of the XIII century Kiev came into complete disrepair.Mention need only a few princes who ruled in the XII century.So, from 1139 to 1146 was the prince of Kiev Vsevolod II.In 1146 at the helm of two weeks, Igor was second, followed by three years of the rules Izjaslav Mstislavovich.Until 1169 on the princely throne had time to visit people such as Vyacheslav Rurik Rostislav of Smolensk, Chernigov Izyaslav Yuri Dolgoruky, Izjaslav third.
capital moved to Vladimir
The period of the late feudalism in Russia was characterized by multiple manifestations:
- the weakening of the power of the prince of Kiev;
- the emergence of multiple centers of power that competed with each other;
- the growing influence of the feudal lords.
on the territory of Russia came two largest centers of influence: Vladimir and Galich.Galich - is the most important at the time the political center (located in what is now western Ukraine).It is interesting to examine the list of Russia's rulers, who reigned in Vladimir.The importance of this period of history will still have to assess the researchers.Of course, Vladimir period in the development of Russia was not so long as Kiev, but it was after he begins the formation of monarchist Russia.Consider the date of the board of governors of the Russian time.In the early years of this phase of the rulers of Russia have changed quite often, there was stability, which will appear later.More than 5 years in power were those of Vladimir princes:
- Andrew (1169- 1174);
- Vsevolod, son of Andrew (1176- 1212);
- George Vsevolodovich (1218- 1238);
- Yaroslav, son of Vsevolod (1238- 1246);
- Alexander (Nevsky), the great military leader (1252- 1263);
- Yaroslav III (1263- 1272);
- Dmitry I (1276- 1283);
- Dmitry II (1284 1293);
- Andrei Gorodetsky (1293- 1304);
- Michael "Holy" Tver (1305- 1317).
All the rulers of Russia after the capital was moved to Moscow before the first kings
transfer of the capital from Vladimir to Moscow chronologically roughly coincides with the end of the period of feudal fragmentation of Rus' and the strengthening of the main center of political influence.Most of the princes were on the throne longer than the rulers of Vladimir period.So:
- Prince Ivan (1328- 1340);
- Semyon (1340- 1353);
- Ivan Krasny (1353- 1359);
- Alex Byakont (1359- 1368);
- Dmitry (Don), a famous military leader (1368- 1389);
- Vasily (1389- 1425);
- Sophia of Lithuania (1425- 1432);
- Vasily the Dark (1432- 1462);
- Ivan III (1462- 1505);
- Vasily Ivanovich (1505- 1533);
- Elena Glinskaya (1533- 1538);
decade to 1548 in the history of Russia was a difficult period, when the situation was such that the princely dynasty actually broken.There was a period of stagnation, when the authorities were knights of the family.
Board kings in Russia: the beginning of the monarchy
Historians are three historical periods of development of the Russian monarchy:
to the accession to the throne of Peter the Great, the reign of Peter the Great and after him.Dates of the Board of governors of Russia from 1548 until the end of the XVII century are:
- Ivan the Terrible (1548- 1574);
- Kasimov Simon (1574- 1576);
- again Ivan the Terrible (1576- 1584);
- Theodore (1584- 1598).
Tsar Fedor had no heirs, so the Rurik dynasty was interrupted.1598-1612 years - one of the most difficult periods in the history of our country.The rulers were replaced almost every year.Since 1613 the country is ruled by the Romanov dynasty:
- Michael, the first representative of the Romanov Dynasty (1613- 1645);
- Alexis, son of the first emperor (1645- 1676);
- Theodore A. ascended the throne in 1676, and the rules of 6 years;
- Sophia, his sister, the rules from 1682 to 1689.
In the XVII century in Russia, finally, it was the stability.Strengthen the central power, gradually begin reforms that led to the fact that Russia has grown geographically and gained strength, it came to be considered the leading world powers.The main contribution to change the appearance of the state belongs to the great Russian Tsar Peter I (1689-1725), who became the first emperor of both.
rulers of Russia after Peter
time of Peter the Great - is the flowering of the Russian state, the empire gained its own strong fleet and strengthened the army.All the rulers of Russia from Rurik to Putin understood the importance of the armed forces, but little has been given to realize the huge potential of the country.An important feature of that time was the aggressive foreign policy of Russia, which manifested itself in violent accession of new areas (Russian-Turkish war, the Azov campaign).
Chronology of Russian rulers from 1725 to 1917 is as follows:
- Skavronskaya Catherine (1725-1727);
- Peter II (killed in 1730);
- the Queen Anne (1730-1740);
- Ivan Antonovich (1740-1741);
- Ekaterina Petrovna (1741-1761);
- Peter Fedorovich (1761- 1762);
- Catherine the Great (1762- 1796);
- Pavel Petrovich (1796- 1801);
- Alexander I (1081-1825);
- Nikolay I (1825-1855);
- Alexander II (1855 - 1881);
- Alexander III (1881-1894);
- Nicholas II - the last of the Romanovs, ruled until 1917.
At this time, finished a huge development of the state, when the authorities were kings.After the October Revolution, there is a new political order - the republic.
Russia during the Soviet era and after its collapse
first few years after the revolution were complicated.Among the rulers of this period can be identified by Alexander Kerensky.After the legal registration of the USSR as the state and until 1924 led the country Vladimir Lenin.Further, the chronology of the rulers of Russia looks like this:
- Dzhugashvili Stalin (1924-1953);
- Nikita Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Communist Party was on until after Stalin's death in 1964;
- Leonid Brezhnev (1964- 1982);
- Yuri Andropov (1982- 1984);
- Konstantin Chernenko, General Secretary of the Communist Party (1984-1985);
- Mikhail Gorbachev, the first President of the USSR (1985-1991);
- Boris Yeltsin, the head of an independent Russia (1991-1999);
- acting head of state, Putin - Russia's President since 2000 (with a break of 4 years when the government led by Dmitry Medvedev)
who they are-the rulers of Russia?
all Russian rulers from Rurik to Putin, who had been in power for all the more than thousand-year history of the state - are patriots who wanted prosperity of all the lands of the vast country.Most rulers were not random people in this difficult field and made each of his contribution to the development and formation of Russia.Good and welfare of his subjects, of course, like all rulers of Russia: the main forces are always directed to the strengthening of borders, increased trade, strengthening defense capabilities.