Chersonesos - that is the name of the city wore that more than two and a half thousand years ago, founded the ancient Greek colonists.The village was resettled in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula.Today the ruins of this village are the attraction of Sevastopol.But those people who first come to the capital of Crimea, first of all visit the dolphinarium, Panorama, Museum of the Black Sea Fleet and the Aquarium and only then sent to the old Hersonissos.But having arrived to Sevastopol for the second time, tourists are immediately in Hersonissos, where there is the opportunity to enjoy a day of historical monuments, forgetting the existence of civilization.
origins of the city
future Chersonesos in the beginning is a small village, glued to one side of the bay that today is called quarantine.Upon arrival to the peninsula, the colonists brought with them weapons, food supplies, household utensils.They also grabbed clothes, labor weapons, and possibly cattle.After landing on the coast of Quarantine, the colonists settled near the bay, apart from their boats close to the tent.They also built a house for himself a temporary purpose.They were dug and huts.After that, people do newcomers construction of permanent shelters.
Hersonissos (photos presented in our paper) subsequently spread to quite a large area.But the land on this side of the bay was and is the most comfortable for living.After all, the very nature of the role has prepared Quarantine space used for parking of vehicles.And so in the early life of migrants here bay was incredible value.It was the only road that connects them with a homeland and a source of caches (fishing).Another fact, thanks to which this area is considered to be the best, is that it is protected from the influence of cold winds from the north-east and north elevation.Ancient Chersonese early on served no more than four hectares.Its population of about one thousand and a half people.
from Chersonesos to Kherson
The name "Chersonesos" from Greek means "peninsula"."Tauride" also refers to the one that is in Tauris, in the land of Tauris.And they themselves were members of the Tauri warlike tribe, which had a bad reputation.These people are constantly fighting and was extremely fierce.Their homeland was modern Crimea.Hersonissos Tauris virtually surrounded on all sides.
City State Hersonissos lasted nearly two thousand years.And the story of his life is related not only to Ukraine but also to countries such as the Byzantine Empire, Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece.Chersonesos was founded as a colony of the rich and famous Greek city Herculean Pont.Therefore, in his culture for a long time took place Hellenic customs and traditions.He also had the title of the trade of the village, and even military action led to the Bosporus Kingdom and the Scythians.
In the Middle Ages Hersonissos was renamed to Kherson, although in the manuscripts of ancient Russia found the name of Korsun.For thousands of years, Hersonissos (pictured above) was part of the all-powerful Byzantine Empire.Therefore, the city became the capital of the Christian throughout the Crimean peninsula.And in 1399 Kherson was looted and burned by the army of Khan Edigei.
in 1892 where was located Hersonissos (map is on) was established by the Archaeological Museum.A 1994 decree of the then President of Ukraine he was awarded the status of a national reserve "Chersonesos".The reserve is located on an area of 500 hectares.And every year it is visited by three hundred thousand people.In terms of the main tasks of the museum include:
- studies of a scientific nature.
- Restoration of monuments of culture and architecture.
- Creating conditions for recreation and tourism.
- Effective and efficient use of the existing heritage.
reserve "Chersonese" is in possession of settlement that relates to the V century.BC.e.- XV Art.n.e., the medieval fortress Cembalo Fortress, which is located in Balaclava, and belongs to the XIII-XVIII centuries.In addition, there is still one of a kind antique farmstead and plots that show the first archaeological park in Ukraine.
Reserve for high drain
Each of the departments establishment boasts highly qualified professionals, who are the real enthusiasts what they're doing.Among employees of the reserve, there are six candidates of historical sciences, and ten men just preparing for the process of the protection of his scientific works.National Reserve "Chersonese" is under the leadership of Director General Leonid Vasilyevich Marchenko.He has the title of Honored Worker of Culture of the Ukrainian state and the degree of candidate of historical sciences.
Due to the presence of unique monuments and trained staff Chersonesos became the basis for the practice of students and pupils.For example, at one time there were practical courses, students of colleges and universities of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkov and Kiev.
Chersonesos attracting considerable interest among experts from foreign countries.For example, in the publications of these countries often appear articles and notes about the ancient city, and at international conferences can often hear reports on research conducted in this city.
It is in this village were once exiled those who were against the policy of the rulers of Constantinople.Among such people were the offspring of the self-styled Roman IV, Justinian II contender Vardan diatribe and, actually, Justinian II, and Pope Martin.In Hersonissos there is the ancient theater, which is the only one of its kind in the entire DNS.The city of Kherson was named Empress Catherine II in the honor of the ancient Chersonese.
Crimea Chersonesos, as already mentioned, was the owner of the ancient theater, which was built at the turn of III-IV centuries.The theater can accommodate more than one thousand spectators at a time.When Hersonissos was ruled by ancient rulers, the theater was used as an arena for gladiatorial combat.When the Roman Empire, Christianity became the main religion, then all kinds of plays were banned here.A theater built on the ruins of a couple of impressive temples.
Among the monuments of the ancient city, noteworthy everyone, can be called fog bell.It was cast in 1778.For its production using the captured Turkish guns.The task was a bell to warn ships that sailed past the coast in bad weather.When the Crimean War took attraction was moved to the French capital.Only in 1913 fog bell returned to its rightful place.
symbol Chersonesos considered "great basilica."It was the first local temple, which was built in the sixth century.Then, the city ruled the Byzantine emperor Justinian I. Paul Church was vystelen mosaics.Already in X century on the ruins of a previous basilica was built a new church.For the construction of this church architects used the fragments of the old temple.For making columns marble building was involved, and they weigh about 350 kilograms.
Comments and opinions of tourists
Those who were lucky enough to visit in a unique and unmatched Hersonissos, said that one of a kind historical findings make it possible to touch the ancient civilizations and soak them in spirit.After all, history is not a single state can be read on every pebble.Tourists say that Hersonissos - it's like a time machine that transports people during the conquest, gladiator fights and the first theatrical performances.