If we look at a map of the Russian Federation, it can be found in the basins of the Volga and Kama rivers name, where there are the syllables "ha" and "wa".This confirms that there lived Finno-Ugric tribes.In their language are the syllables mean "river".Despite the fact that they had quite a wide distribution area, many historians still can not say exactly what was their way of life.
Description of Finno-Ugric tribes
Since a considerable part of Russian Finno-Ugric tribes, names of their very diverse.They can be divided into five main groups:
- Karelians living in the republic of Karelia.They communicate in several dialects, but the primary language - Finnish.Also, know Russian.
- Sami or Lapps, who live in Northern Scandinavia.Earlier, their number was much greater, but with time they were pushed to the north, resulting in poor living conditions began to steadily reduce the number of members of the people.
- Mordva and Mari living in the territory of Mordovia, as well as in many Russian regions.Of all the groups, it is this considered to be quickly Russified, nationality immediately accepted the Christian faith and the appropriate language.
- Komi and Udmurt inhabiting the Republic of Komi.This group - the most educated, the level of literacy was not equal to them until the Revolution.
- Hungarians, the Khanty and Mansi, who live in the Northern Urals and the lower reaches of the Ob River.But originally the capital of this nation considered banks of the Danube.
Thus, the Finno-Ugric tribes throughout its history were in the same ranks with the Russian.And, then, of their culture intertwined, they learned new apart.
Where did the Finno-Ugric peoples?
Talking about where settled Finno-Ugric tribes, delve into the issue of ethnic origin.The fact that the place of their residence covers a large area, but accurate data about where it all began, no.
is believed that they are the original inhabitants of Eurasia.In IV-III millennium BC.e.they held not only Russian territory entirely, but also spread to Europe.There is divided opinion on why the tribes went to the West.Firstly, it could be a regular migration.Second, it allows for the possibility of their marginalization by the conquerors.
second option historians believe more likely, as in the II millennium BC.e.to the territory of Russia began to penetrate the tribes of Turkey, India, Asia Minor, and so on.However, one can say exactly what the Finno-Ugric peoples have played a significant role in the formation of the Slavic peoples.
Before Slavic population
indigenous population of the land to the Russian Slavs considered Finno-Ugric and Baltic tribes.To master these territories they started VI thousand years ago.Gradually shifted to the west of the Ural Mountains, and then - on the East European Plain, and then reached the coast of the Baltic Sea.However, the birthplace of these peoples has always been considered the Urals.
Unfortunately, most of the Finno-Ugric tribes has not survived to the present day.Today their number is minimal.But we can say for sure is that the descendants of such a vast and numerous peoples in the past, live in the territory of the entire planet.
Settling Finno-Ugric tribes is uneven.This is due to the fact that the process has begun on the border of Asia and Europe, but later captured and other territories.To a large extent they have attracted the north and west.By
I millennium virtually all the territory occupied Baltic Finno-Ugric tribes.Place of settlement is not only, as some ethnic groups went toward Northern Scandinavia.
But excavations show that all these people had a lot to do with the Slavs, from farming, religion and ending with the appearance.Therefore, even though most of the tribes went north, some of them stayed on the territory of modern Russia.
first meeting with Russian
In the XVI-XVIII centuries Russian immigrants began to flock to the territories inhabited by Finno-Ugric tribes.List of military clashes has been minimal, as most of the population of it is carried out peacefully.Only occasionally joining new territories to the Russian State met with resistance.The most aggressive were Mari.
Religion, writing and language Rus fairly quickly began to supplant the local culture.But from the Finno-Ugric peoples and the dialects of some of the words entered the language.For example, part of the Russian names, like Shukshin Piyasheva and others have nothing to do with our culture.They date back to the name of the tribe "shuksha" and the name "Piyash" in general is a pre-Christian.Thus, the connection between the two cultures runs harmoniously complement each other.
ancient Finno-Ugric tribes lived in large areas, and that was the cause of their displacement.It should be noted that not all of them could be protected from armed colonizers.But this did not have to do as much of the land joined Russia quickly and without resistance.
However, the places inhabited by Finno-Ugric tribes, attracted not only Russian.The Turks were also interested in expanding their territories.Therefore, part of the nation took no Christian and Muslim faith.
should be noted that, despite the fact that the Finno-Ugric peoples are literally dissolved in cultures that appeared on their land, they preserved their anthropological type.It's blue eyes, blond hair and a broad face.Also because of their language, many words have been borrowed, for example, the tundra or sprat.
In fact, you can not highlight any particular economic activity pursued by Finno-Ugric tribes.Classes are for the most part they were reindeer herding, fishing and hunting.Only some of the tribal sub-groups had differences.
For example, Maris, who reacted negatively to the entry of the Russian state, resisted until the Revolution.This has a negative impact on their occupation.They could not sell, and few of them could carry the craft activity.Accommodation in the villages forced to earn a living only through animal husbandry and agriculture.
subgroup of Komi, which distinguishes education could otherwise earn money.Among them were many merchants and entrepreneurs, which eliminates the heavy labor.
Orthodox religion was the majority of nationalities that made up the Finno-Ugric tribes.Religion Some of them differ quite strongly due to the fact that during the colonization of the territory was conquered by the Turks.Therefore, some settlements have been forced to turn to Islam and Islam.
But Orthodox profess not all Finno-Ugric tribes.The list of nationalities who have turned to other religions is minimal, but still it takes place.
Udmurts took Orthodoxy, but it is not the cause of following the Christian tradition.Many of them were baptized only to Russian nobility to leave them alone.However, the main religion is their paganism.They worship the gods and spirits.Many of the ethnic Komi will retain the same faith and were examined.
Khanty and Mansi also did not perceive Christianity as its main religion.They return to the old faith, and did not even try to hide it, baptism was alien to them.But due to the fact that they lived far from the Russian princes, to force them to accept orthodoxy, no one could.Probably for this reason, the old faith remained for the Khanty and Mansi only about which they knew.They simply can not be compared with anything.
Unfortunately, the Finno-Ugric peoples are those groups of people who believed the transmission of written information sinful.As a result, any literary sources are simply eliminated.The transmission of information in written form is prohibited.
However, it is available the use of hieroglyphics.It began in the IV millennium BC.e.and it continued until the XIV century.Only then Metropolitan Perm awarded the tribe of the Komi own letter.It is likely that this is why they are more educated than their blood brothers.
Finno-Ugric tribes, in contrast to the Slavs, did not have a specific language.Each village has used its own dialect.Often within the same ethnic people could not understand each other.This is probably also caused the lack of writing.
Literature and Languages
All Finno-Ugric tribes, whose names can not be counted because of their large numbers, saying their own dialects.Moreover, even a nation often without an interpreter could not understand their neighbor's blood.But, contrary to popular belief, the most common language is not going away.
on the territory of modern Russia can meet rural communities, where schools teach in two languages - Russian and native - is where many thousands of years ago, said the ancestors.For example, in Mordovia been studying Russian and Mordovian languages.
Before the reign of Peter I the modern Russia does not differ in order to force the entire population speak only in Russian.It was used only in the big cities or large administrative institutions (tax, etc.).Russian language penetrated the villages and small towns gradually, first with it explained only with the landlords and bailiffs.
The basic literature considered Moksha, and Mari Merya.And they talked even with the cab drivers, traders in the market and so on.That is, different people involved in business activity, it is simply not profitable to know the dialects of their clients.
Conclusion In conclusion, I must say that Russian add a lot to the culture, writing and languages of the Finno-Ugric tribes.However, one should not underestimate the contribution and the reverse.Many modern names, names of cities and rivers, it came from the Finno-Ugric peoples.
Literature also enriched by the culture of this nation.The Finno-Ugric peoples have always buried their dead in oak coffins.They had to guard.The role of the guards took the cats, which, according to legends, gives the soul a sorcerer or magician of the tribe.Also oak hung the chain if it is intended for fast saw cut and processing.Accordingly, even a great Russian classics, as Pushkin could not give up the Finno-Ugric culture.And probably his cat scientist is none other than the shaman, who came out of the underworld.