Formation nationality, later called Russ, Rusich, Russian, Russians, which became one of the strongest nations in the world, if not the strongest, began with the unification of the Slavs settled on the East European Plain.How they came to these lands when - is not known.The story chronicles no evidence of rusam early centuries AD is not retained.Only in the second half of the IX century - the time when the first prince in Russia - it is possible to trace in detail the process of nation building.
"Come to reign and own us ..."
According to the great waterway that numerous rivers and lakes are interconnected whole East European Plain, the ancient tribes lived Ilmeny words, glades, Drevlyane, Krivichy, Polotsk, Dregovichinortherners, Radimichi Vyatichi have got one thing in common for all name - Slavs.Two large cities built by our ancient ancestors - Novgorod and Dnepr - the establishment of statehood in those lands already existed, but did not have rulers.Roll references governors tribes appeared, when the annals were written first princes in Russia.Table with their names contain only a few lines, but it is the main line in our history.
procedure calling the Vikings to the management of the Slavs is known to us from school.The ancestors of the tribes, tired of the constant skirmishes and battle each other, chosen messengers to the princes of the tribe of Russia, inhabited for the Baltic Sea, and ordered to tell those that "... All our land is great and rich, but there is no dress (t. E. there is no peace and order).Come to reign and own us. "We responded to the call of the brothers Rurik, sineus and truvor.We did not come alone, but with his army, and settled in Novgorod, Izborsk and Beloozero.It was in the year 862.And the people to whom they began to rule, started to call Russ - under the name of the tribe Varangian princes.
Refuting the initial findings of historians
There is another, less popular hypothesis concerning the arrival zabaltiyskih princes in our land.As the official version, it had three brothers, but it is likely that the old tomes were read (translated) wrong, and arrived at the Slavic lands only one ruler - Rurik.The first prince of Ancient Rus came with his loyal soldiers (warriors) - "labor-thief" in Old Norse, and his household (birth, home) - "blue-Hus."Hence the suggestion that the brothers had three.For some reason, the historians concludes that, two years after moving to Slovenia, both the so-called brother Rurik die (in other words, the word "labor-thief" and "blue-Hus" is no longer mentioned in the chronicles).One can cite several other causes of their disappearance.For example, that by the time the army, which has collected the first prince in Russia, it was not called "labor-thief" and "squad" and had come with him srodstvenniki - not "blue-Hus" and "kind".
addition, modern scholars of antiquity more inclined to believe that our Rurik - is none other than the famous in the history of Danish konung Rёrik Frislandsky, famous for its highly successful raids on less weak neighbors.Perhaps because he was called to the board, which was strong, brave and invincible.
Russia when Rurik
founder of the state system in Russia, the founder of the princely dynasty, which later became the royal rules entrusted to them by the people for 17 years.He combined into one power Ilmeny words, psovskih and Smolensk Krivichy whole and Chud, northerners and Drevlyane, Meria and Radimichi.The attached land claimed governors of his henchmen.By the end of the reign of Rurik Ancient Rus I took quite a vast area.
In addition to the founder of the new princely family, entered into history and two of his kinsman - Askold and Dir, set by the call of his authority over the prince of Kiev, was not yet available in the new state overriding importance.The first prince in Russia Novgorod chose his residence, where he died in 879, leaving the principality young son Igor.The heir of Rurik to rule himself could not.For many years the undivided power passed to Oleg - Companions and distant relative of the deceased prince.
first true Russian
Thanks Oleg, known popularly Prophetic, Ancient Russia gained power, which might envy and Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire - the strongest at the time of the state.What I did the first time a Russian prince in Russia, regent for minor Igor multiplied and enriched.Having gathered a large army, Oleg went down the Dnieper and won Ljubech, Smolensk, Kiev.The latter was taken by removing Askold and Dir, and inhabited the land drevlyans Igor recognized its real ruler, and Oleg - worthy regent until his adulthood.Henceforth, the capital of Kiev Rus appointed.
Heritage Prophetic Oleg
Many tribes joined to Russia in the years of his reign, Oleg, the time declared himself the first truly Russian, but not outlandish prince.His campaign against the Byzantine Empire ended the absolute victory and win back to Russ benefits to free trade in Constantinople.Rich booty brought to the squad this campaign.The first princes in Russia, which rightly belongs and Oleg true Radel of the glory of the state.
Many legends and amazing stories were current among the people after the return of the troops from going to Constantinople.To get to the gate of the city, Oleg ordered ships to install the wheels, and when a fair wind filled them sail ships "went" across the plain to Constantinople, bringing terror to the citizens. Terrible Byzantine Emperor Leo VI surrendered unconditionally, and Oleg stunning victory as a sign nailed his shield on the gates of Constantinople.
In the annals of 911, Oleg already referred to as the first Grand Prince of All Russia.In 912 he died, according to tradition, from a snake bite.His more than 30-year rule ended not heroically.
Among the strengths
With the death of Oleg managing vast possessions of the principality took Igor Rurikovich, although in fact he was the ruler of the land to the 879-th.Naturally, he wanted to be worthy deeds of his great predecessors.He also fought (in his reign Russia suffered the first attack of the Pechenegs), subdued several neighboring tribes, forcing them to pay tribute.Igor did everything as the first prince in Russia, but to carry out his main dream - to win Constantinople, it was not immediately apparent.And in their own domains, not all went smoothly.
After strong reign of Rurik and Oleg, Igor was much weaker and it felt drevlyans obstinate, refusing to pay tribute.The first princes of Kiev were able to keep the rebellious tribes under control.Igor also subdued during this rebellion, but revenge Drevlyane overtook Prince a few years later.
Khazars Intrigue, betrayal Drevlyane
Poorly developed relationships with the Crown Prince, and Khazars.Trying to reach the Caspian Sea, Igor concluded an agreement with them that they will miss the squad to the sea, and he was coming back, give them half a rich booty.Prince fulfilled his promises, but it was not enough to Khazars.Seeing that the preponderance of force on their side in a fierce battle, they killed almost all Russian troops.
shameful defeat had experienced Igor and after his first expedition to Constantinople in 941 - the Byzantines was destroyed almost his entire squad.Three years later, wanting to wash away the shame, the prince, united in one army of Rus, Khazar and even Pechenegs again marched on Constantinople.Found out from the Bulgarians that it is a formidable force, the emperor offered to Igor peace on very favorable conditions for, and the prince accepted it.But one year after such a stunning victory, Igor was killed.Refusing to pay tribute to repeat, korestenskie drevlyans destroyed Joy few tax collectors, among whom was the prince himself.
Princess, the first around
cruel revenge traitors Igor's wife - Olga The Maid of Pskov, which he chose as his wife has Prophetic Oleg in 903.Drevlyans were destroyed without any loss to the Rus, through cunning, and ruthless strategies Olga - to be sure, knew how to fight first princes in Russia.Crown title steward state after the death of Igor took Svyatoslav, the son of a princely couple, but because of the infancy of the last twelve years later for his mother led Rus.
Olga is a remarkable intelligence, courage and ability to wisely govern.After the capture of Korosten - the main city Drevlyane - Princess went to Constantinople and took it baptism.The Orthodox church was still in Kiev and Igor, but the Russian people worshiped Perun and Veles, and soon turned from paganism to Christianity.But the fact that Olga, having taken the baptismal name of Elena, paved the way for a new Russia in the faith until the end of his days (the princess died in 969) did not change it, raised it to the rank of saints.
Russian Alexander the Great called Svyatoslav N. Karamzin, the originator "of the Russian state."Amazing bravery and courage distinguished first princes in Russia.A table shows the dry dates of their rule, conceals many glorious victories and acts for the benefit of the Fatherland, which stand for each name in it.
succeeded by the age of three title Grand Prince (after the death of Igor), the de facto ruler of Russia Svyatoslav was only in 962.Two years later he was freed from the domination of the Khazars and join Vyatichi Russia, and in the next two years - a number of Slavic tribes living along the Oka, the Volga region, the Caucasus and the Balkans.The Khazars were defeated, their capital of Itil abandoned.With the North Caucasus Svyatoslav gave their land jars (Ossetians) and Kasogs (Circassians) and colonized them in the newly formed cities and Tmutarakan White Tower.Like the first Prince of All Russia, Svyatoslav understood the importance of the constant expansion of possessions.
worthy of great glory ancestors
in 968, winning Bulgaria (city Pereyaslavets and Dorostol), Svyatoslav not without reason, began to consider the land their own and firmly entrenched in Pereyaslavets - peaceful life in Kiev he did not like, and his mother, the PrincessOlga, well governed in the capital.But a year later she died and the prince Bulgarians, united with the Byzantine emperor, declared war.Going to her, Svyatoslav left his sons in the management of the great Russian city: Yaropolk - Kiev, Oleg - Korosten, Vladimir - Novgorod.
difficult and controversial was the war - victory with varying success celebrated alternately on both sides.Out of confrontation peace treaty, according to which Bulgaria Svetoslav left (it attached to his possessions Byzantine Emperor John Tzimiskes) and Byzantium for the land paid tribute to the Russian prince installed.
back with this controversial hike in importance, at the time of Svyatoslav stopped in Beloberezhe that on the Dnieper.There spring 972 in its weakened army attacked Pechenegs.The Grand Duke was killed in action.Secured him the glory of the born warrior historians explain that Sviatoslav was incredibly tough hikes, could not sleep on the wet ground, his head tucked under the seat, as it was in the home is unpretentious not princely, to food was also nepriveredliv.His message, "I'm coming to you," he warned before the attack the enemies of the future, went down in history as a shield on the gates of Constantinople, Oleg.