federal state - a complex politico-administrative entity, has in its composition territorial entities.The latter have a sufficiently broad legal authority until sovereignty, close to the state.
The most common symptoms of a federal state:
- territorial federation is divided into separate entities: states, the cantons, the land of the republic, and so on.
- Federated subjects have the right to adopt their own laws, the constitution, can have their own legislative, judicial and executive bodies.
- However, the supreme legislative, judicial and executive authority with respect to the whole state still belongs to the federal authorities.Competence among the subjects of the federation and its center in each case delimited by the Federal Constitution.
- Most federal states have as a common Union citizenship and citizenship of the federal subjects.
- nationwide basic foreign policy can only be achieved by Allied authorities, who officially represent the country at the international level.
- Federated rule of law, as a rule, has a bicameral parliament.One of the Houses of Parliament assembled from representatives of the country's regions.
Species federal state
There are several variants of such political and administrative entities.For example, with respect to the constitutional and legal system, there are symmetrical and asymmetrical federation.Symmetrical federal state - a state in which all its territorial entities have the same constitutional and legal status.For example, the United States, where all the states in this sense are equal.Conversely, subjects asymmetric federation may vary in their powers.This state of affairs in Brazil and India.
Among other things, the federation may initially be formed for various reasons.And depending on the historical conditions of the formation of the following varieties:
- Territorial federal state.These are the states, based on the administrative divisions that put purely geographic basis.Such, for example, the United States and Germany.
- National Federation - is the very reason for the administrative division of the country lies in the subjects of its multinational.And then by dividing the territory must take into account the factor of compact residence of the peoples.Actually, this principle lies in the federal structure of Russia.
By way of education they may be contractual and constitutional.If the contract arise from a small, previously independent countries to solve common problems: protection, effective economic activity, and so on, then a constitutional federal state - is often the former unitary state, at a certain historical stage, converted into its administrative-territorial division.