Kievan Rus - an exceptional phenomenon of medieval European history.Occupying geographically intermediate position between the civilizations of East and West, it has become the most important area of historical and cultural contacts and formed not only on the basis of internal self-sufficient, but also at an important influence of neighboring nations.
formation of tribal alliances
Education Kievan Rus state, and the origins of the formation of modern Slavic peoples rooted in the times, when large parts of eastern and south-eastern Europe started the Great Migration of the Slavs, which lasted until the end of VII century.One of the Slavic community to gradually disintegrate in the eastern, western, southern and northern Slavic tribal unions.In the middle of the I th. In the territory of modern Ukraine has existed Antsky Sklavinsky unions and Slavic tribes.After the defeat in the V century BCtribe of Huns and the final disappearance of the Western Roman Empire Ants Union began to play a prominent role in Eastern Europe.The invasion of Avar tribes did not give this union formed in the state, but the process of formation of statehood was not stopped.Slavic tribes colonized new lands and unite to create new alliances of tribes.
First, there is a temporary, casual union of tribes - for military campaigns or defense against unfriendly neighbors and nomads.Gradually any association with similar culture and life of the neighboring tribes.Finally, territorial associations formed proto-types - land and principalities which later became the cause of a process such as the formation of the state of Kievan Rus.
Briefly: the composition of the Slavic tribes
Most modern historical schools connects the beginning of self-consciousness of Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian people to the collapse of the great Slavic ethnically cohesive society and the emergence of a new social formation - tribal alliance.The gradual convergence of the Slavic tribes gave rise to the state of Kievan Rus.Education States to accelerate at the end of the VIII.On the territory of the future powers it was formed seven political alliances: dulibov, Drevlyane, Croats, fields, Ulichi, Tivertsy, siveryan.One of the first came Dulibsky Union, uniting the tribes that populate the territory of the district.Gorin in the East to West.Bug.The most advantageous geographical position has been a tribe glades, covers the middle of the Dnieper River.Grouse in the north to the river.Irpen and Ros in the south.Education ancient state of Kievan Rus took place on the lands of these tribes.
emergence of the rudiments of a state system
The conditions of formation of tribal alliances grew their military and political significance.Most of the seized during military campaigns mining appropriated tribal chiefs and combatants - armed professional soldiers serving leaders for a fee.Assembly plays an important role of free men and warriors folk fees (Chamber), which solves an important administrative and civil matters.A separation layer in tribal leadership in the hands of that focus power.The composition of this layer consisted of the boyars - advisers and approximate prince, princes themselves and their retainers.
Isolation Polanski Union
particularly intensive process of public education happening on the ground Polanski tribal principality.It grows the value of Kiev - its capital.The supreme power in the principality belonged to the descendants Polyansky Prince Kyi.
between the VIII and IX centuries.in the principality developed real political preconditions for the emergence on this basis the first Slavic state, which later received the name of Kievan Rus.Education
question "Where have gone the Russian land", given by the chronicler Nestor, did not find a clear answer to this day.Today, historians spread several scientific theories of the origin of the name "Rus", "Kievan Rus".The formation of this phrase is rooted in the deep past.Broadly speaking, these terms are used in the description of the East Slavic territories in the narrow - taking into account only Kyiv, Chernihiv and Pereiaslav land.Among the Slavic tribes, these names have proliferated and further entrenched in different names.For example, names of rivers - tires.Ros, and others. As they began to be called the Slavic tribes that occupied a privileged position on the lands of the Middle Dnieper.According to scientists, the name of one of the tribes, which was part of the Union Polanski was dew or Russes, and later just the tip of the social union Polanski began to call himself Russ.In the IX century ended with the formation of the ancient Russian state.Kievan Rus' came into existence.
territory of the Eastern Slavs
Geographically, all the families were living in the woods or forest.These natural areas were favorable for the development of economy and safety for life.It was in the mid-latitudes, forests and forest-steppe began the formation of the state of Kievan Rus.
general arrangement of the southern group of the Slavic tribes greatly influenced the nature of their relations with the neighboring peoples and countries.The territory of ancient Rus residence located on the border between East and West.These lands are located at the crossroads of ancient roads and trade routes.But unfortunately, these areas were open and unprotected natural barriers, which made them vulnerable to incursions and raids.
relationship with neighbors
Over VII- VIII centuries.the main threat to the local population were alien peoples of the East and South.Of particular importance for the field of education was the Khazar Khaganate - a powerful state, located in the steppes of the Northern Black Sea coast and in Crimea.In relation to the Slavs Khazars we took an aggressive stance.First, they imposed a tribute and Vyatichi siveryan, and later - and the field.The struggle with the Khazars contributed to the unification of the tribes Polanski tribal alliance, which are traded, and fought with the Khazars.Maybe because of the Khazars to the Slavs crossed the title lord - Hagan.
important Slavic tribes had a relationship with Byzantium.Repeatedly Slavic princes fought and traded with the powerful empire, and sometimes even entered into her military alliances.In the West, the East Slavic peoples maintained relations with the Slovaks, the Poles and the Czechs.
Education Kievan Rus state
political development Polyansky reign led to the emergence at the turn of the VIII-IX centuries, public education, which was later assigned the name "Rus".As the capital of the new powers became Kiev, historians XIX-XX Art.I began to call her "Kievan Rus".Education of the country began in the Middle Dnieper, where lived drevlyans, siveryane and clearing.
ruler of Russia had the title of Kagan (Haka), equivalent to the great Russian prince.It is clear that this title could only wear the lord, who by their social standing above Prince tribal alliance.On the strengthening of the new state showed its active military activities.At the end of the VIII.Russ headed Polyansky Prince Bravlin attacked the Crimean coast and captured writhing Surozh and Korsun.In 838, the Rus arrived in Byzantium.So it was issued diplomatic relations with the eastern empire.Education East Slavic state of Kievan Rus was a great event.She was recognized as one of the most powerful nations of the time.
first princes of Kievan Rus
reign in Russia representatives Kievich dynasty, which include brothers Askold and Dir.According to some historians, they were co-rulers, though perhaps at first reigned Deer, and then - Askold.In those days, on the Dnieper appear squad Norman - Swedes, Danes, Norwegians.They were used to protect trade routes and as a mercenary in the raids.In 860 Askold, leading an army of 6-8 thousand. Man carried out a campaign against the sea Kostantinopol.Being in Byzantium, Askold acquainted with the new religion - Christianity, was baptized, and tried to bring a new faith which could take Kievan Rus.Education, the history of the new country began to experience the impact of Byzantine philosophers and thinkers.From the Russian Empire in the land were invited priests and architects.But these measures Askold did not bring much success - the nobility and the commoners was still strong influence of paganism.Therefore, Christianity came later in the Kievan Rus.
formation of a new state defined the beginning of a new era in the history of the Eastern Slavs - the era of full-fledged public and political life.