At present, very few people can say that this province, as the territorial division of the country is carried out differently.This phenomenon refers to the times of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.
province is the highest unit of administrative territorial division of the state.They were issued from 1708 to 1929 as a result of the construction of the absolutist state.These territorial units are headed by governors.
interpretation of the term
To answer the question of what a province, we turn to the etymology of the word.The term "province" is derived from the Latin word «gubernator», which means "ruler."Twenty-ninth December 1708 Peter the Great issued a decree on the division of the state on the new administrative-territorial unit - the province.Until this year, the Russian Empire consisted of 166 counties.Thus it was formed 8 provinces.
We have already explained what the word "province".Next, we consider the question of the history of the emergence of new territorial-administrative units in more detail.
first reforms of Peter
Create provinces took place in accordance with the decree of the emperor.The initial line-up was as follows:
- Moscow province: the territory of today's Moscow region, large parts of Tula, Vladimir, Kaluga, Kostroma, Ivanovo, Ryazan region.
- Ingermanland Province (two years later renamed St. Petersburg).It included the modern Leningrad, Novgorod, Tver, Pskov, Arkhangelsk south, west Vologda, Yaroslavl region and Karelia.
- Archangelgorod Governorate, which included Arkhangelsk, Murom, Vologda region, part of Kostroma, Karelia and Komi.
- As part of the province of Kiev - Little Russia, Belgorod and discharges Sevsk part of Orel, Belgorod, Bryansk, Tula, Kaluga, Kursk regions.
- Smolensk province included current Smolensk region, part of the Bryansk, Tver, Kaluga and Tula regions.
- Kazan province - the Volga and Bashkortostan, the Volga-Vyatka, part of Tambov, Penza, Perm, Ivanovo and Kostroma regions, the northern part of Dagestan and Kalmykia.
- Azov includes parts of Tula, Orel, Ryazan, Kursk, Belgorod, all Voronezh, Rostov, Tambov, part of Kharkov, Lugansk, Donetsk and Penza regions.
- As part of the Siberian province - Siberia, most of the Urals, Kirov region and part of the Komi Republic.
Interestingly, by the end of 1719 was the eleven provinces.This was due to the fact that the allocated Nizhny Novgorod, Astrakhan and Riga province.At the head of the territorial unit was the governor-general, and each share of provinces headed by Landrat.
second administrative division of provinces (second reform of Peter the Great)
second reform took place in 1719, May 29.In the course of its provinces were divided into provinces headed by warlord and provinces in turn are divided into the districts with the commanders of zemstvo commissioners.Thus, it formed 47 provinces that make up the nine provinces, with the exception of Revel (now Tallinn) and Astrakhan (they are not divided into parts).In documents of the time it describes in detail what province and what powers it is endowed.
third administrative reform
What were the province at a later date?During the third administrative reform removed the districts and counties are reimposed.The result was 250 counties of 14 provinces.Formed Belgorod and Novgorod provinces, counties began to lead the district leaders of the nobility.
Still, the local nobility weighed on the royal power in order to feel themselves masters of the land.The administrative structure was stable for a long time, and if there were new units at the expense of the acquisition of territory.At the end of October 1775 as part of the Russian state were 23 provinces, 62 provinces, 276 counties.
Reform of Catherine the Great, Catherine
Decree on 7 November 1775 states that it is necessary to conduct the administrative subdivision of the state territory.Create provinces ceased, but their number decreased, the province removed and changed the principle of formation of the county.The bottom line was that the county should be 20-30 thousand. People, and in the province - about 300-400 thousand.
also an object of the reform was to strengthen the power after the invasion of Pugachev.Governors and governors submitted to the prosecutor's supervision, headed by the Attorney-General and the Senate.
By the end of the reign of Catherine II, the Russian turned 48 governorships, 2 province, 1 region and the home of the Don Cossacks.The Governor-General was appointed by the Empress, counties governed by captains-police officer.Until 1796 the creation of new governorships was due to accession by territories.
The population no longer a question arises, what is the province for which it was created.The emergence of new administrative units remained virtually unnoticed.
Reforms Paul I and Alexander I
Education provinces during the reign of Paul I happened by replacing the names of the administrative-territorial units.The reform in 1776 there was an integration: Governor General officially became provinces, the territories, where there was a likelihood of insurrection or foreign attack, remain in place governors-general.
control circuit provinces during the reign of Alexander I did not change, but in the period from 1801 to 1802 years, abolished the territory restored.
Consider what were the province during this period.Note the division of territorial units into 2 groups: in the European part of Russia is obschegubernskaya organization (consisting of - 51 province), on the outskirts of the monitored system Generalgouvernement (only 3 provinces).In some areas - Kuban, Ural, Trans-Baikal, the Army Don, Terek - governors were both atamans Cossack troops.In 1816 there was 12 governorships, with a composed 3-5 provinces.
from the province to the area
By the end of the XIX century produced 20 areas - administrative units is similar to the province.The word "region" as opposed to overseas "Province" true Old Slavic and means "possessing" (possession).
Areas located in areas bordering other countries, they did not have their Duma were violated other rules governing the military governor, and were part of the Government-General.It simplifies unit of local government and increased submission to the governor personally.
first governor-general in Russia - ADMenshikov - atonement for office in 1703
administrative staff as of 1914
Until the early twentieth century in the provincial local government unit had its effect.From 1907 to 1910, during the Stolypin reforms, a Council of the United Nobility.
interim government kept the provincial division, they were headed by provincial commissioners and counties - county.Parallel to this, the Soviet system was formed in opposition to the Provisional Government.
Primordial provincial division remained some time after the revolution in October 1917, but was established Provincial Executive Committee.This executive committee, chosen on the provincial congress of Soviets.
By the end of 1918 as part of the state was 78 provinces, and in the period until 1920. 25 of them joined in Finland, Poland and the Baltic States.From 1920 until 1923.the whole territory of the RSFSR there were new autonomous units - each year formed a new province.
composition changes regularly, but as a result of reform by 1929 the province had disappeared completely, and the edge of the field there, and they, in turn, includes districts, districts, village councils, which we observe to this day.
In conclusion, we have listed in the article, which the province was on the territory of Russia.In addition, we addressed key concepts and history of the emergence of different administrative-territorial units.