Book Antiquity is fundamentally different from the book, created during the Middle Ages.The difference is not just semantic content and topics.Mainly different materials, on which he wrote, as well as guns, which he wrote.Because now we have a closer look at what kind of material for writing in the early Middle Ages was the most popular, on which were written the book and that it was necessary.
transition from antiquity to feudalism
The slave ancient society in a historical context appears before us as svobodnomyslyaschih, developing formed.Because multiple and written memos dating from this era are not just ancient icons and puzzles, and a full papers and essays written in dead languages now.However, in those years we were trained in literacy only the rich people.To write, they used papyrus - so to say, a solid paper, which is transported to Europe from Egypt.With the advent of the Middle Ages this material for writing lost its relevance, especially because razladilis relations with the East.Because, from the third century, people move on to the parchment.
history of the birth of a new framework for writing
After razladilis relations with Egypt, in Sicily began to make his papyrus.But this material to the letter could hardly satisfy the demands of the Italian offices.It was yellow, brittle, too porous and is not suitable for writing pen.Then the Europeans turned to the invention of the inhabitants of Asia Minor, which appeared in the second century BC.e.It was a rawhide untanned skins of animals, which previously recorded testimony of the Old Testament Jews.The invention belonged to the king of Pergamum Eumenes Second, where and took its name.
Parchment was used as a material for writing in the early Middle Ages the most widely.It spread throughout Europe, including the Nordic countries, and has become the basis for a variety of religious and secular books treatises.
turns out that parchment - most commonly used material for writing in the early Middle Ages.On this basis, we find the certificates, diplomas, diptychs, trifoliate book with directions and even personal notebooks feudal lords and other representatives of high society.To make the notebook while it was enough to put down a piece of parchment in only once.He was a mild, versatile and not hesitated.To create a more meaningful set of records typed sheets of parchment, which is filed as modern books.In such collections of religious texts were written, laws, government installations and other.
new material for writing in the early Middle Ages gave rise to the development of a fundamentally new system of documentation and drawing books.First example - a library.In the ancient world it is presented to us in the form of numerous recipes that can be stored on the shelves.In the depths of a papyrus find the information was extremely problematic.In the Middle Ages, we see the shelves crammed with books, each of which has a cover.With this cover page, you can determine what type of information contained within.The second example - is furniture (oddly enough).Ancient sages worked on the desk, and the medieval feudal lords and the priests began to write for the first time at the table.This invention as parchment book was a real boon to the community.All argued that it is comfortable to hold, it's nice to read, and most importantly - to find the necessary information as soon as possible.
keeping the secret palimpsests
Is parchment - the only writing material in the early Middle Ages?The answer to this question is in part negative.The fact that animal skin had the honor to write only the nobles, while the poor were not able to afford such a pleasure.Because among them became popular palimpsests.So-called papyrus sheets from which erases old texts and then applied them with new ones.The ink was scraped off with knives, pumice, burned, soaked - in short, a lot of ways it was incredible.After these procedures, the text has been completely lost.In the papyrus were new record, the value of many of them is not as great as the destruction of precursors.
the 10th centenary of the letter in the early Middle Ages to the next level.In the years of exile in Europe, the Arabs there appeared the paper, which was much cheaper than parchment and more convenient to use.But the type of production is fundamentally different from the present.Sheets were prepared by crushing a special press linseed rags, which, when dried chopped.Paper was not so fragile and valuable, as the papyrus, because it became, like parchment, drawn up in the book, making of her certificates, diplomas and simple notebook.