Battle for Moscow in the Great Patriotic War in memory of the Russian people has a special place.That it proved that previously did not know the defeat of the German army can be defeated.For Hitler capture of Moscow it was of great importance, which equates to the complete victory over the Soviet Union.As a result, it was the beginning of the collapse of the Wehrmacht.All those who defend the capital of our Motherland, both military and civilian, have shown dedication, heroism and courageous resistance.Medal "For Defense of Moscow" were those whose valor and bravery have become an obstacle in the way of the fascists to conquer the world.
Defense of Moscow
Battle of Moscow is conditionally divided into two stages: defensive and offensive.
historical reference point of the battle for the capital of the Soviet Union or in other words, the first day of the defense of Moscow - is September 30, 1941.The count is conducted after the German army launched an offensive codenamed "Typhoon" in the direction of Bryansk and Vyazma.Fights were heavy.With heavy losses the enemy made his way to the Moscow-Volga Canal, and was stopped at the southern border town of Kashira.Closer to Moscow, he could not come.
stood up to defend the city its inhabitants.Even in the summer it was formed 12 divisions and 56 volunteer battalions that went to defend the capital.In addition, according to the decision of T-bills of September 12, 1941, began the construction of fortifications around Moscow.The main line of defense covered the city in the semicircle, which is 20 kilometers from the city.Besides established defensive positions in the city, for example in the area of the Garden Ring and a bypass railway.In addition, equipped with repair shops to repair damaged equipment and weapons.All these buildings are called Moscow defensive zone, and led them to the protection of the chief of the Moscow Military District, General PA ArtemyevUnder his military began to divert part of the city garrison, rates and reserve divisions formed people's militia.
Long heroic defense of Moscow allowed to tighten and strengthen the reserves.And December 5 of the same year began an offensive operation by three fronts: Kalinin, Western and South-Western.Commander of the onset of these was appointed General of the Army GKZhukov.For the German army it was a complete surprise.By this time the enemy was essentially exhausted constantly ongoing fighting.In addition, due to the severe weather has disrupted the delivery of weapons and food of the German army, which led to a retreat.
fascists Retreat from Moscow accompanied by large losses, both in humans and in weapons and equipment.By the beginning of January 1942 the front line was pushed back from Moscow by 250 km than it has been eliminated the threat of capture.
still offensive near Moscow, developed by GKZhukov, studied in military academies.The commander himself later received a medal "For the Defense of Moscow", like many other ordinary participants of this battle.This award has been awarded their courage and heroism in the fight for freedom of the motherland.
history of the medal "For the Defense of Moscow»
for awarding the defenders of Moscow June 29, 1943, it was decided to establish a premium coin.Responsibility for its development was appointed intendant of the Red Army, Colonel-General Drachov PIOn his orders, it was created artistic group that July 12 has provided some ready sketches.July 15, 1943, these designs were submitted for consideration by Stalin.But at the time the final decision was taken.However, in January 1944, work on the sketch medal was renewed.The final stage of its completion rests with the artists N. Moskalevand Romanov EMBy the end of January, was ready the final draft of the medal "For Defense of Moscow".
adjustments and approval of the final appearance of awards
After a test sample formed in the metal engraver NA Sokolov, a number of changes the appearance of the awards:
- originally anticipated on the background of the Kremlin wall to put a group of defenders of Moscow, but it was replacedtank with soldiers under its armor,
- reduced the size of the dome of the building of the Government,
- placed in the left corner of the image of a flying airplane.
So was received final award badge medal "For Defense of Moscow", a photo which demonstrates its grandeur and solemnity.
date of approval of this award is 1 May 1944.
According to the memoirs of the author medal artist Moskalev NI, work on this award, he began long before the official order of the country's leadership in the autumn of 1941.Then there was a real threat to the occupation of the capital.Subsequently, this sketch was the basis of the other award sign - the Order of Glory, which was also developed Moskalev.
How does Medal
Premium sign was brass, round, 32 mm in diameter.The obverse (front side of the so-called sign of any premium) shows the wall of the Kremlin.Behind her is a domed roof of a government building with flying the banner of the Soviet Union.In the foreground of the pedestal to the heroes who liberated the city of old times - Minin and Pozharsky.Next - the defenders of the capital on the armor of a tank.In the left corner of the etched planes on top of the words "For the Defense of Moscow", and on the reverse of the medal awarded for the defense of Moscow could read, "For Our Soviet Motherland."
Who awarded the medal "For Defense of Moscow"?
According to the government, this award should get all the defenders of the capital:
- military all the armed forces involved in the battle for Moscow is not less than 1 month in the period from 10.19.41 on 01.25.42 year,
- civiliansthe city and the region, who built the defenses and repairing military equipment, as well as directly involved in the offensive and defensive battles of not less than 1 month in the same period - from 19/10/41 at 01/25/42 was,
- military and civilians -active participants in the defense of the capital during the period from 07.22.41 on 01.25.42 year,
- guerrillas who were fighting in the Moscow region.
In addition, this honor was given to soldiers who liberated the city of Tula.
Possible appearance of the medal "For the Defense of Moscow»
As you know, awards are given during the war and after it.The total figure is preserved, but the changes have been made that distinguished military and post-war versions of this award:
- ear medal, which was produced during the war, is soldered to the base and strip two-layer, heavy,
- postwar sample ear poured togetherwith a medal, and was pad-layer, aluminum.
first person who was awarded the medal "For Defense of Moscow" was Joseph Stalin.He was awarded 7/20/44, and received the corresponding certificate № 000001.
before January 01, 1995 in the total medal "For Defense of Moscow" has received no less than about 1,028,600 people.It is noteworthy that more than twenty thousand teens were awarded the medal "For Defense of Moscow".
to wear the medal "For Defense of Moscow" on the left side of the chest (where the heart beats, for Moscow - the heart of our homeland).If there are other medals, the "For the Defense of Moscow" have put a premium after the medal "For the Defense of Leningrad".
sometimes referred to in historical literature award for the defense of Moscow, but it is causing incorrect wording.Order has never been, and there was just Award medal "For Defense of Moscow".