Times in English seem to be quite complex, but it is only at first glance.Many are afraid of the abundance of temporal forms, especially long-term, completion and completion of a long time-that seemed to have no analogues in the Russian language.
In fact, we also have the means to:
- Expressions length of action:
I prepared pilaf three hours. past for a long time.And note, without specifying the time is not clear exactly when preparing pilaf.The sentence "I prepared pilaf" can be understood and so I prepared pilaf just now, or once I had to cook risotto in general, or I prepared risotto before something happened in the past.After saying in English "I was cooking a pilaf", we clearly state that the action happened in the past and lasted for some time.
- To express the completeness of action:
first portion of pilau scorched.Completed now either simple past.If this action is somehow linked to this (for example, this event had just happened), it will be Present Perfect, if we just talk about some events in the past - it will be Past Simple.
- To express an action occurs at different steps:
I cooked pilaf and taught English times. long time.
- To express an action in the past, completed before another action:
I cooked risotto, and (then) went to teach English times.Elapsed time completed.Note that in this case, the Russian language is not always possible to do without the qualifying words - that is partially apart from perfect form of the verb, it demonstrates that the action was completed after another.In English you can do without supplements, a form of the verb already indicates that action is completed.
Many people do not take into account that in the Russian language for the transfer of these shades of action used primarily lexical means - is changing the word itself, its end, there are boxes, in some cases, changing the vowel in the root, and so on. N. The rules are very diverse,and easy to fit into a coherent and logical scheme.But apart lexical means for transmitting the mode of action can be used additions specified time.All this makes the Russian language is much more difficult than English.
Education times in the English language is much easier and more logical.Storing these forms are usually not cause any difficulties.It is much more difficult to decide where and what form should be used.It is this special attention.
Times in English with examples given in the table below.
|Simple||Long||Completed||completion of a long-|
|Facts.What do we do with a certain periodicity.Always use if you want to tell us about the sequence of events.||long process.It is usually translated imperfective verbs.||perfect action.Translated perfective verbs.||The action lasted a certain period of time and, sootvetsvetnno, culminating or completed at some point.|
|present||I cook and pilaf sometimes.- Sometimes I cook pilaf.||I am cooking a pilaf now.- Now I cook pilaf.||I have just cooked the pilaf.- I just cooked pilaf.||I have been cooking the pilaf for an hour.- I cooked risotto for an hour (until this moment).|
|Past||I cooked the pilaf, wrote the letter and went to the shop.- I cooked pilaf, wrote a letter and went to the store.||I was cooking the pilaf yeasterday.- This pilaf I prepared yesterday (for some time).||I had cooked the pilaf by the night.- I cooked pilaf to the night (the action is completed by some time in the past).||I had been cooking the pilaf for two hours when i remembered about the meeting.- I wrote an article for two hours, until he remembered the meeting.|
|future||I will cook a pilaf tomorrow.- I'll make pilaf tomorrow (there is no emphasis on the duration or completion of the process, we simply report the facts).||I will be cooking a pilaf tomorrow.- I'm going to cook pilaf tomorrow (for some time).||I will have cooked a pilaf by the meeting.- I'll make pilaf for a meeting (ie risotto will be ready by that date. Literally, this proposal can be translated as "I'll have pilaf prepared for the meeting).||I will have been cooking a pilaf for two hours by the time i need toI go on the meeting. - I'm going to cook risotto for two hours to the point where I need to go to the meeting. (This form is used very rarely and usually in book speech).|
to remember the British timestry to translate the various verb forms literally. That is, according to this scheme:
Communion 1 - making.
Communion 2 - Made.
So long sounds like: "I am cooking" - "I am cooking."
Completed: "I have cooked" - "I have prepared".
completion-long: "I have been cooking" - "I" symel "itself prepares".
All this sounds at first glance absurd and ridiculous,but it helps to understand the logic of the English language.Suffice it once to understand these rules in order to British times it seems simple, logical and very comfortable.