Bleach, its physico-chemical and application of the properties

Bleach has also called bleaching or calcium hypochlorite.Although the latter term is not quite true, becauseThe substance is a complex mixture and it includes not only hypochlorite (Ca (ClO) 2), but also oxychloride (CaClO), chloride (CaCl2), calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH) 2).Also may be present as an impurity iron chloride (III), which confers a yellowish tint.Under normal conditions, the compound has a solid state of aggregation, a strong smell of chlorine, and most of the white color.The water dissolves only calcium hypochlorite, while chlorine is released into the atmosphere and other components of the mixture to form a thick sediment - a suspension.

When direct sunlight Lime chloride releases oxygen when heated and decomposed to generate heat, which can cause an explosion.In this connection, the substance should be stored in dark, cool (unheated) and ventilated rooms.When working with whitewash protection must be used for the skin, respiratory organs, especially in enterprises for its production and


In terms of chemistry, compound bleach, the formula of which is recorded CaCl (OCl), refers to a mixed (double) salts, ie,It comprises two anion. Also, this compound is a strong oxidizing agent, in an alkaline solution capable of converting MnO (manganese oxide (II)) → MnO2 (manganese oxide (IV));in contact with organic substances cause their fire.The interaction of sulfuric or hydrochloric acid is released chlorine: Ca (ClO) Cl + H2SO4 → Cl2 + CaSO4 + H2O.

This material was prepared by chlorination in the production of calcium hydroxide.In this process it turns bleach three varieties - 26, 32 and 35% available chlorine (quantity of pure chlorine released under the action of the mixture of acids HCl or H2SO4).One disadvantage of this material is that it becomes active upon storage chlorine per year in 5-10%.Trying to deal with this, releasing a product of increased stability in the form of flowing chlorine gas through the suspension Ca (OH) 2.Active chlorine in the compound thus obtained is 45-70%.Also, lack of this substance is and what it is corrosive metal corrodes cotton.Therefore, keep it in a wooden container, plastic containers or plastic bags and packages.

Bleach exhibits bactericidal and sporicidal properties, which are determined by the presence of hypochlorous acid and oxygen in the solution.Due to this, it is widely used in the purification of waste water and sewage from various medical institutions as a disinfectant (processed surface, common areas).Also used as a bleach in the manufacture of textiles, pulp and paper.

Thus, bleach - it is a complex mixture that is chemically quite active substance and exhibits the characteristics of a strong oxidizing agent.In aqueous solution hydrolyses to form hypochlorous acid (NS1O).At elevated temperature (heating) and under the action of sunlight decomposes, releasing oxygen and chlorine.