Japan Industry: Industry and development

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Japan (Nihon or Nippon) - one of the leading economic powers.It is one of the leaders, along with the US and China.It accounts for 70% of the total product of East Asia.

Industry of Japan reached a high level of development, especially in the spheres of science and education.Among the leaders of the world economy - the company "Toyota Motors", "Sony Corporation", "Fujitsu", "Honda Motors", "Toshiba" and others.

Current state

Japan is poor in natural resources - are important only reserves of coal, copper and lead-zinc ores.In recent years, it was also the actual processing of ocean resources - extraction of uranium from sea water, mining of manganese nodules.

From the perspective of the global economy on the share of Japan accounts for about 12% of total production.Japan's leading industries - ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, machine-building (in particular automotive, robotics and electronics), chemical and food sector.

Industrial zoning

Within the state, there are three large regions:

  • Tokyo-Yokohama, which includes Keihin, East Japan, Tokyo Prefecture, Kanagawa, Kanto region.
  • Nagoya, it refers to the bale.
  • Osaka-Kobsky (Han-xing).

addition to the above, there are also smaller areas:

  • Northern Kyushu (Kita-Kyushu).
  • Kanto.
  • East Maritime Industrial Area (Tokai).
  • Tokyo-Tibsky (he was treated Kay-yo, East Japan and Kanto region Chiba Prefecture).
  • Internally-Japanese sea area (setonaikai).
  • Industrial area of ​​the northern lands (Hokuriku).
  • Kasimsky area (here are all the same East Japan, Kashima, Kanto region and Ibaraki Prefecture).

More than 50% of the income of manufacturing industries accounted for the Tokyo area of ​​Yokohama, Osaka, Kobe and Nagoya, as well as the city of Kitakyushu in the north of the island of Kyushu.

most active and stable element of the market in this country in favor of small and medium-sized businesses.To this area belongs to 99% of all Japanese companies.However, this is not true of the textile industry.Light Industry of Japan (a leading element of which is referred to the industry) is based on a large, well-equipped facilities.


Farmland countries occupy about 13% of its territory.And half of these lands - flooded fields used to grow rice.At its core, agriculture here is a diversified, and it is based on agriculture, and more specifically, the cultivation of rice and industrial crops, cereals and tea.

But this is not all that boasts Japan.Industry and agriculture in the country is actively developed and supported by the government, give them a lot of attention and a lot of money investing in their development.A significant role is also played by horticulture, sericulture, animal husbandry, forestry and marine fisheries.

important place in the agricultural sector covers Fig.Vegetable developed mainly in the suburbs, under it is given about a quarter of farmland.The remaining area is occupied by industrial crops, forage and mulberry trees.

about 25 million hectares covered by forest, most of the owners are farmers.Small proprietors owned a plot of approximately 1 hectare.Among the major owners - members of the imperial family, monasteries and temples.


Livestock in Japan began to actively develop only after the Second World War.He has one feature - lie at the basis of imports, imported food (corn).Own the Japanese economy can provide no more than a third of all the needs.

Livestock Centre performs about.Hokkaido.In the northern regions developed pig.In general, the cattle population reaches 5 million individuals, about half of them - dairy cows.

fishing industry

Sea - one of the benefits that can enjoy Japan.Industry and agriculture are obtained from the location of the island country, multiple benefits: it is an additional way for the delivery of goods, and help the tourism sector, and a variety of food.

However, in spite of the sea, the country has to import a certain quantity of products (in accordance with international law, the extraction of marine life is only allowed within the boundaries of territorial waters).

main target species are the herring, flounder, cod, salmon, halibut, Pacific saury, etc.About a third of the catch provide water near the island of Hokkaido.Japan was not spared side and the achievements of modern scientific thought: here is actively developing aquaculture (cultivated pearl, lagoons and fish in the rice fields).


In 1924, the park of cars in the country has only about 17.9 thousand. Units.At the same time there was an impressive number of rickshaws, bicycles and carts that are moved by oxen or horses.

20 years increased demand for trucks, mainly due to the growing needs of the army.In 1941 the country produced 46,706 cars, of which only 1065 - passenger.

Automotive Japan began to develop only after the Second World War, which served as the impetus for the Korean War.More favorable conditions were provided by the Americans to companies that were taken for the execution of military contracts.

In the second half of the 50s has grown rapidly and the demand for passenger cars.By 1980, Japan has overtaken the United States and became the world's top exporter.In 2008, the country has been recognized as the largest automaker in the world.

Shipbuilding is one of the leading industries, employing more than 400 thousand. Man, given running directly on plants and auxiliary facilities.

Available capacities allow to build ships of all types and purpose, while as many as 8 docks are designed to release supertankers with a displacement of 400 thousand. Tonnes. The activities of the sector coordinating ASKYA, which includes 75 national shipbuilding companies, cumulatively produce about 80% of all vehicles produced inJapan.

development of Japanese industry in this area began after the Second World War, when in 1947 the program began to operate the planned shipbuilding.According to her company received from the government is very favorable preferential loans, which in each year as the increase in the budget grew.

By 1972, the 28th program provided (with state help) build vessels with a total displacement of 3304 thousand. Grt.The oil crisis has reduced the scale, however, laid the program after the war served as a basis for a stable and successful growth of the industry.

the end of 2011 the order book for the Japanese accounted for 61 million dwt.(36 million grt.).Market share remained stable at 17% in deadweight tonnage, with the bulk of orders belonged to bulk carriers (specialized ships, a variety of bulk carrier for transportation of goods such as grain, cement, coal, bulk), and smaller - to tankers.

Currently number one in the construction of ships in the world, despite serious competition from South Korean companies, is still Japan.Specialty industry and government support have created a framework that supports major companies afloat even in this situation.


country has few resources, and therefore developed a strategy of development of metallurgical complex, aimed at energy and resource saving.Innovative solutions and technologies will allow enterprises to more than a third to reduce electricity consumption, and innovation applied at the level of individual companies and the entire industry.

Metallurgy, as well as other sectors of industry specialization Japan, received the active development after the war.However, if other states have sought to modernize and update the already existing technology they have, the government of this country has gone the other way.The main effort (and money) were designed to complement the company the most advanced technology at the time.

rapid development of the sector lasted for about two decades and reached a peak in 1973, when 17.27% of total world steel production fell to a Japan.And in terms of quality it claims to be the leader.Is stimulated, inter alia, metallurgical raw material import.It annually imported more than 600 million tons of coke and 110 million tonnes of iron ore products.

the mid 90s Chinese and Korean steel companies to compete with the Japanese, and the country began to lose its leading position.In 2011, the situation has worsened due to the natural disaster and the disaster at the "Fukushima-1", but it is estimated the total reduction in the rate of production does not exceed 2%.

Chemical and Petrochemical Industry

Chemical Industry in Japan in 2012 produced products at 40.14 trillion yen.The country is one of three world leaders in conjunction with the United States and China, with about 5.5 thousand. Companies that the focus and giving jobs 880 thousand. Man.

within the country is the second largest industry (its share - 14% of the total), second only to mechanical engineering.The government is developing it as one of the key areas, paying great attention to the development of environmentally friendly, energy-saving technologies.

manufactured products are sold in Japan and exported to 75% - in Asia, about 10.2% - in the EU, 9.8% - in North America, etc.The basis of the export - rubber, photographic supplies and aromatic hydrocarbons, organic and inorganic compounds, etc.

Country Japan also imports products (the volume imported in 2012 amounted to about 6.1 trillion yen), mainly from the EU, Asia and the United States.

Japan Chemical Industry leader in the production of materials for the electronics industry, in particular, about 70% of the world market of semiconductor products, and 65% - liquid crystal displays, is owned by this island nation.

In modern conditions a lot of attention paid to the development and production of carbon fiber composite materials for the nuclear and aviation industries.


Much attention is paid to the development of information and telecommunications sector.In the role of "main locomotive industry" are the three-dimensional image transmission technology, robotics, fiber optics and wireless next generation networks, intelligent networks, "cloud computing."

The scale infrastructure catches up with Japan, China and the US and among the top three.In 2012, the total number of Internet users in the country reached 80% of the total population.Power and money are directed to the creation of supercomputers, the development of efficient energy management systems and energy-saving technologies.


Approximately 80% of energy demand in Japan had met through imports.Initially, this role was played by the fuel, particularly oil from the Middle East.In order to reduce dependence on supplies in Japan has taken a number of measures, in particular in relation to the "peaceful atom".

research programs in the field of nuclear energy, Japan began in 1954.It adopted several laws and established organizations designed to fulfill the government's objective in this area.The first commercial nuclear reactor has been imported from the UK, started its work in 1966.

A few years later the country acquired the utilities from the Americans and drawings together with local companies built on them objects.Japanese company Toshiba Co., Ltd., Hitachi Co., Ltd.and others began to design and build a light-water reactors themselves.

In 1975, because of problems with the available stations improvement program was launched.In accordance with it the nuclear industry in Japan by 1985 had to go through three stages: the first two involves changing the existing structures in order to improve their operation and maintenance, and the third is needed to increase the capacity of 1300-1400 MW and make fundamental changes in the reactors.

This policy has led to the fact that in 2011, Japan had 53 operating reactors, which provide over 30% of the country's electricity.

After the "Fukushima"

In 2011, the energy industry in Japan has received a serious blow.As a result, the strongest in the history of the country's earthquake and ensuing tsunami on the nuclear power plant "Fukushima-1" the accident occurred.After the case then a large leak of radioactive elements were contaminated with 3% of the country, the population of the area around the station (about 80 thousand people.). Turned into a displaced persons.

This event has forced many countries to think about how much is acceptable and safe operation of the atom.

in Japan was a wave of protest with the requirement to abandon nuclear energy.By 2012, most of the stations of the country was cut off.Feature Industry of Japan in recent years fit into one sentence: "The country aims to become a 'green'."

She actually did not use the atom, the main alternative - natural gas.Much attention is also paid to renewable energy: sun, water and wind.