The Normans - it is ... The history and culture of the Normans.

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Normans - it is one of the names of the northern peoples.So the inhabitants of Central and Southern Europe in the VIII-XI centuries were called detachments fierce warriors, sailed from cold countries.Raids were regular, teams turned to the army, and as a result the map of Europe was redrawn.

Numerous synonyms

disappeared from the face of the Earth's vast empire francs, established a representative of the Carolingian dynasty, Charlemagne.England has been invaded.The Spaniards, to the country which also traveled robbers, calling them pagan monsters - madhausami by investing in the name of all the horror in front of them.The British called them askemanami, ie boating of sturdy ash.In ancient Rus they were called Vikings.They are also known under the name "Viking" (later it was proved that the term "Viking" called themselves Normans sea campaign).We can say that the Normans - it's conquerors as Franks said the poet, "brave to excess."Because of pride, courage, turning ability of soldiers raiding them have always been successful, but differed cruelty.The fame of their extended far - they were afraid of all European rulers, but also dreamed of having them in his service.

Warriors from generation to generation

Normans were born warriors.Not only the harsh nature and the conditions of life on the shores of the northern seas makes them so.Religion and the country's laws were, in fact, the militaristic.In a happy afterlife, where they will ever please the Valkyries, they got only the soldiers who glorified themselves in battles.Even the wounded and the dying soldier could not leave the battlefield and had to kill the enemies to the last breath.And then behind him it was Odin himself (the supreme deity), and recovered in a fabulous heavenly country Volholl for eternal bliss.The Normans - people who do not know pity nor enemies, nor to himself.They struck cruelty laws.One of them frail elderly and handicapped children (even with minor deviations) were killed.The rules of life evolved over the centuries.

reasons raids

Lean nature, which made it impossible to grow enough food, forced them to ill-treatment of relatives, determines the need for raids on the nearby fertile and rich territory which is in the south and in the eastand west.Do not disdain the conquerors and lifeless northern territories, they are actively settle in them, forming colonies there.The rich lands were beyond the seas, and water spaces become a second home to the Normans.They were wonderful vessels stable and durable.Warriors were rowers, they are absolutely not afraid of the sea and swam far inland.Long before Columbus discovered America, they, however, North.

discipline and subordination

Normans - it is great sailors, who went well and the oars and sail, with the wind and against it.Excellent warriors and pioneers who fear nothing, fear that reaches the most remote corners of Europe, were surrounded by legends.The most talented, courageous and ruthless warriors became barsekami who believed werewolves.They were invincible.In the army observed strict discipline, unconditional submission of ordinary soldiers superiors, there was a code of honor.They were stubborn in achieving this goal and composure, not giving deviate from the intended path.The character was "Nordic, sustained."Most importantly, they had the ultimate goal - to create their own rich state, and all the methods for were good.But over time they changed.

Start broad expansion

history of the Normans (and there are documented) dates back to 789 years.By the shores of England, landed three ships, which were Danes from Harland, the subjects of the king Beotrika.After the devastation of the monastery of Lindisfarne, which followed 4 years later and received a lot of publicity, to the end of the century it had taken a few more raids.Then came 40 years of relative calm.But in the year 835, with the destruction of Sheppee - British island off the coast of Kent, it all started.Followed by the annual devastating incursions of the Normans to the shores of the nearby European countries.Some British Isles Vikings to take trips mainly in spring and summer, wintered.

objectives were achieved

Anglo-Saxons called them pagans, or northern people.The name "Normans" gave them Franks.The 855-856's huge army Gentile landed east of England forever.But fully conquered England was only in 1066 the Duke of Normandy (northern region of France) William, who is known in history as the Conqueror.That is, first the Normans raided the north of France, and even in Paris, built on the site collapsed under the blows of the Frankish Empire the state, and from there attacked England.The history of the Normans with the accession of the English and Sicilian throne, in general, ends.And even then they were called Normans.Even after a raid because the soldiers began to husbandmen.Now they have enough fertile land, and to ensure a decent life could without resorting to arms.

Born to Win

Norman Conquest stretched for three centuries.As a result, it was subdued in the IX century of Ireland and Scotland.Constant attempts to conquer England led to the fact that in IX-X centuries, the Normans had occupied the northern, eastern and central parts of the country.And called conquered territory Danelare («Area of ​​the Danish law").

perpetrated raids on the frieze - the coastal area between today's Denmark and the Netherlands.Norman conquest extended not only to Spain and Portugal.In 859 a large fleet consisting of 60 ships, is packed full of loot in Spain, came to the shores of North Africa.From the year 844 raids on Spain were scheduled for a time they even managed to capture Seville.

They were available any territory

During all the campaigns Normans, Vikings very well adapted to the environment and assimilated with the local community.In southern Italy, they entered the beginning of XI century, and by 1071 it all came under the rule of the Normans.

very important role went to the Vikings in the Crusades.They actively participated in the creation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.By the rivers Volkhov, Lovat, Dnieper and Volga Normans, Vikings reached the Black Sea, and came to the shores of the Byzantine Empire.Some of them are engaged in trade, on the Volga River and the Caspian Sea, and came to Baghdad.Not only the heat of the earth attracted the Normans.The famous Viking Erik the Red in 985 he founded a colony in Greenland, which, in spite of the very severe climate and harsh living conditions, lasted 400 years.The famous leader of the settlers devoted to the saga, which indicates that one of the sons of Erik the Red around the year 1000, visited North America.

raids - not an end in itself

For the Vikings, especially in X-XI centuries, the raids were not an end in itself.In many areas, they settled, forming a state, province, colony.Some settled in Scotland, some in Southern Italy.The state was created by the Normans in Sicily, in France, in England.Somewhere results achieved by direct capture of the country and overthrow the legitimate monarch, as in England.The troops of the last king of the Anglo-Saxons were defeated Godwinson Harold at Hastings.Throne winner takes William the Conqueror.In the county of Aversa came the first state of the Normans in southern Italy.It was followed by Melfi and Salerno, Calabria, Puglia and Naples.Later, all these entities were merged into Sicilian kingdom.As a rule, first the Vikings entered the service of the local nobility, and then overthrew them.

emergence of Normandy

should be noted that the Normans had a managerial genius.They did not destroy the previous power structure, taking the best of progress.There Viking amazing ability to adapt already formed the legal and cultural institutions to their own needs.They respected the traditions and achievements of the vanquished nations.The state of the Normans in France called Normandy began with the occupation of the land in the IX century Norwegian and Danish Vikings.I manage Hrolf Pedestrian, named so because of the fact that no horse could carry his huge body, and he had to travel by foot.The Normans forced Charles III the Simple recognize the land at the mouth of the Seine their property.Hrolf pleaded vassal of Charles, married his daughter and took the Christian name of Rollo.The Normans, who arrived with him, and willingly embraced Christianity mingled with the locals.Taking the best from feudal France, the Normans built a good structure of state power in Normandy and in England and Sicily.

resurgence in popularity

meaning of the word "Norman" the most simple.It is translated from the Norse northman literally - the "northern people."As already noted, these people who lived in Scandinavia, gained prominence due to the wide expansion in the VIII-XI centuries.The Normans combines the soldiers, sailors, merchants, explorers and travelers.Naturally, a great nation had its own traditions, religion and literature.Culture Norman is a branch of Germanic culture.Impressions of numerous campaigns were passed from mouth to mouth, the term saga.The special honor was the poets, called scalds.Religion Vikings, captured in the myths handed down to this day the names of the pagan gods - the main deity Odin and 12 - Thor, Loki, Bragi, Heymndall and others.There were 4 of the goddess - Frigg, Freya, Idun, Sif.Mythology formed from the V century until the adoption of Christianity.Written in verse, "Elder Edda" and prose "Edda" - the main sources of Norse mythology.Across the territory, where the Normans or ran their way to our times preserved stele, rugged runic characters, archaeologists find jewelry and talismans.Everything related to the Normans, gave rise to a powerful nowadays pop culture - the hundreds of video games, cartoons, popular novels.

Another name

Natives of Scandinavia had many names in every country they are called in different ways - in Russia they were given the name of "Varyag".The Normans, who came to Russia in the north, were employed in the service of the Russian princes, who willingly native to them, as they themselves in his veins flowed the blood of Rurik, founded in the IX century Novgorod principality.He was the founder of the princely family, who later became the first Russian royal dynasty.The Normans in Russia has always embodied a powerful, invincible warriors.Therefore, the warship gave the name of "Varyag" and the words of the song, praising the courage and loyalty to the Motherland, known to many now.