Under the legislation, it is the debtor - the debtor, which may be as a citizen (natural person) or organization (legal entity), as well as the subject of the economy, kotoryi arrears.
receivables and payables.Concepts
Currently debts participants of economic relations have become a big part of the whole system of economic and economic turnover.Commitments of this kind in modern times are seen as an integral element and the need for financial calculations.
debt may be payable and receivable.These are the main types of debt.Participants of the receivables and payables act accordingly, debtors and creditors.The concept of this kind of debt should be formulated in more detail.
receivables referred to the sum of the debts owed to the organization as a result of its interaction with other organizations or individuals in the economic sphere.The presence of such debt means that the assets of the enterprise, which must be used not to themselves, and the party that should be.
payables referred to the amount charged to the debtor to another person who needs to repay the debt.This is a debt obligation arises when the agreed time of payment for the performance of an obligation, the payment of the purchased goods, services received has expired, and the payment has not been committed.Unlike receivables it is that the face of the debtor uses the funds that do not belong to him in reality, that is, funds which are for him the debt amounts.
Similarities and differences
receivables and payables are common and different from each other.The common is that both the basis of the debt is a gap in time between the execution and payment.This process is a failure to function of money as means of payment.
difference debts are features of their functioning as a kind of obligations that constitute debt.
difference debtor from the lender
In order to understand the distinctive characteristics, it is necessary to determine that the debtor - a person who has a duty to another person.In other words, he is a debtor to a creditor.
debtors and creditors differ from each other in that the latter have the right to require the return of the debt first.Those who took a loan, there is only one obligation - to return the money.
What is meant by the contractual relationship
debtors and creditors are often contractors to each other.The contract in this case should be compensated.In these documents, one of the counterparties to sell the goods or to fulfill any obligation, to provide the service, to do the job, and so on. N. The second counterparty the product or service to pay within the specified contract period.As soon as a delay in payment, has delayed a person becomes a debtor.Thus, the debtor - a contractor who has delayed payment of the contract.
Write-off of receivables
must be remembered that most of the amounts due are not implemented quickly.Thus, excess payment to the tax authorities, as well as the financial authorities may be written off from the balance sheet only after recalculation of the amount will be made on account of payments to be made in the future.The debt is paid off parts of all employees for a long time, through the withholding of amounts that are due to be paid to them.There may be individuals who have left the organization and did not return the debt voluntarily, in this case, after the limitation period is over, the amount of debt written off as losses.Just over a sufficiently long period of time generally not recoverable amount levied on the claims.
written off receivables, as well as any other debt, an accountant, at a time when the next tax period ends.Normally, certain days to write off this kind of debt is not installed.Therefore, once I ended the statute of limitations for certain debts, it should be written off.
Tasks account of calculations with debtors
Equally important are accounts receivable.The most important part of the accounting records to the accounting for debt.According to the basics of law obligation is always associated with the right of a creditor to oblige the debtor to the mandatory implementation of the relevant actions.Implementation of commitments is a legal relationship, from a certain point of view, specific individuals associated data legal relationship are mutual obligations in this relationship.
If one person - the debtor - to voluntarily implement actions to fulfill the obligations, the second person - the lender - in any case obliged to take this performance.If the debtor does not fulfill the obligation voluntarily, the creditor may apply to the court for enforcement.The court may order the debtor to fulfill the obligation to enforce all of its assets.Another feature is that the debtor - the debtor is therefore his duty to be performed compulsorily by the court, and the creditor is not required to, and shall have the right to go to court to fulfill the obligations by the debtor.
obligation always relates to the two parties - creditor and debtor.It is possible to identify the main challenges that faced the function of accounting settlements with debtors.Among them:
- cash flow accounting, as well as the operations of the movement, which must be complete, clear and precise;
- compliance and control of cash and payment and settlement discipline;
- establishing the composition of accounts receivable, its structure (which includes the definition of the terms of payment, type of debt, and so on. N.);
- establishing the composition of outstanding receivables.
accounts, reflecting payments to debtors
Leading accounting, the employee should reflect the receivables.Take due account of all debtors.The bill, which accounted for the debts of this kind, is formulated in terms of the balance of accounts.
All calculations should be reflected in the following accounts, which, in turn, except rooms, have special names.This account number 60, 62, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 75, 76.
among all holders of debt allocated other debtors - people, details of which should be reflected in the account in the box"Other ..." on specially provided for this article.It brings together a variety of amounts included in this one group.This includes taxes payable and receivable workers, if they are given some amount, such as loans.Loans can be given as a means of business or organization, and at the expense of banks.In the same article raises the amounts needed for compensation.Also at that APPLIES debt reporting entities, shortage of commodity values, debt to suppliers.There are a number of amounts which are also referred to that article.
Settlements with other debtors
accounting accounts intended for the account of calculations with different debts, other than those for which payments are separate accounts are accounted for settlements with other debtors.
Currently, the chart of accounts is composed of a large number of accounts in order to take into account operations that were previously recorded in the accounts 76, which was intended for settlements with various debtors.At the same score into account and payments to creditors.
currently provided by 377, which allows for settlements with other debtors.Settlements with other creditors are underway on the account 685. Account 377 is provided in order to take into account the accounts receivable mainly from personnel, joint property entities, if they have not been established as a separate legal entity.As mentioned above, the calculations made with the staff in cases where they lend, or they have other obligations to the employer.
also reflected in the account 377 settlements with various banking institutions, particularly in servicing fees and other banking organization of this type of services provided by banking institutions that are not directly related to the activities of a banking institution.