implementation of the plan of the young Peter I would not be possible without a lot of the open port, which would allow Russia to have sea links with the European states.The textbook "History" (Class 5) tells the story of the conquest of Ingria, and in this article are some facts about the capture of the Swedish fortifications, standing on the banks of the Neva and Okhta.Currently, the Swedish, the name sounds like a fort Nyuenkas, but in Russian historiography fort known by the name Nienschanz.
Background of the fortress
Since the beginning of the XIV century, and for nearly three hundred years of Swedish Kingdom engaged in the development of the Baltic lands that were ceded to it under the terms of Orekhov world.Neva and Ladoga land is not within the interests of the State.It was only at the beginning of the XVII century, it was decided to return the lost lands.To begin with the Government of Sweden was elected to a political solution to the problem.One of the sons of Charles IX had the opportunity to take the Russian throne.But this was prevented by the protracted war with Denmark, which ended in 1613 By this time, the opportunity to become the king of Russia was lost - in the reign of the young Mikhail Romanov.But the plans to strengthen Sweden on the banks of the Neva were not forgotten, and Jacob de Lagarde Chief of the Swedish Army, offered the crown to build a fortress to protect the already conquered territories.
The idea was approved by the king in chief and supported by the Swedish parliament - Riksdag.In 1611, the fortress was built, which later became known as Nienschanz, translated into Russian as "strengthening the Neva."
certainly important position that ranked Nienschanz, it was quite clear to the Swedish government.All XVII century that was dedicated to strengthen and modernize the structure of the protective structure.In 1675 transformation plan of the fort was approved by the Swedish king and became enforced.Every peasant Karelia and Ingermanland was obliged to work a month, upgrading Nienschanz.
By the beginning of the XVIII century has been the strengthening of the form of a pentagon and is on artificial bulk shaft height of 19 m. Two Ravelin, five bastions and modern instruments made serious defensive structure fort.
Neva - trading route, known to the Vikings, it is not surprising that originated near the fortress and became the fastest growing cities Nien.
This city project in Sweden, was conceived as the capital of all of its eastern lands - Ingermanland.The emblem of the city was depicted a lion with a sword standing between two rivers, which was explained by the military presence of the Swedes in the mouths of the Neva and Okhta.
convenient location attracted to this area artisans and merchants from all over Europe.Here lived compactly Finns, Germans, Russian, Izhors, Dutch.There were Protestant churches, a Lutheran church, and the left bank of the Neva River decorated Orthodox church.Between the banks to circulate ferry.Business and private correspondence was conducted in German and Swedish.
addition of shops and warehouses in the Nien were built a hospital, a brick factory, a shipyard, a greenhouse and even a nursing home.Between the banks, which was built by the city, I went to Ferry.
flowering of trade and competition among the other Baltic cities led to the fact that in 1632 the citizens turned to the Swedish king with a petition to grant them trading privileges, which were later given to them.
Port became a free zone and are exempt from paying taxes.Increased trade benefits has led to the revival of trade and prosperity of the population.
Swedes fort was only the first sign of the powerful network of fortifications, which was intended to strengthen land Ingermanlandii.But the beginning of the Northern War prevented the implementation of these plans.
history of the 17th century in Russia began with the announcement of the northern war.Peter I was well aware of the importance of the city of Nyen and strengthening the neighborhood with him.Therefore, one of the first military action of the king was taking Nyenskans.
under General-felmarshala Sheremeteva Russian army was in Shlisserburge, and April 23, 1703 made the city and moving along the right bank of the Neva River, he came to a place where there was a fortress Nienschanz.For the intelligence was sent a detachment of two thousand men on the boats crossed Lake Ladoga and approached the fortress of Swedes.Sudden attack crushed the Swedish army outposts as strengthening security has not been prepared, and is small.April 25 came to the fortress of the bulk of the troops.Part of the army crossed the Okhta and a part located at the back under the cover of the outer shaft.Surrounded the fortress, besiegers began to dig trenches for installation of artillery batteries.At night, by water from Shlisserburga were brought mortars, guns and ammunition for them.
April 26 to participate in the capture of the fortress of Tsar Peter came with his retinue.By April 30, all siege activities were carried out, and the commandant of the fortress had been sent a proposal to surrender.At 7 pm on Nyenskans defenders opened fire.The Swedes were shot and five o'clock in the morning, then accepted the offer of surrender.
surrender of the fortress
capture of the fortress was recorded contract surrender.Under the terms of the latter has been granted all the defenders out of the fortress in Vyborg and Narva with banners and weapons.When the time to take the fortress was renamed Shlotburg.
Military Council, which took place shortly after the consolidation of the Russian army on the banks of the Neva River, decided the fate of Shlotburga.The city was too small and uncomfortable.Expand the construction of a new fortress was decided on Hare Island.
Peter personally watched Nienschanz castle was razed to the ground.Buildings smashing, smashed, blown up, erasing the memory of the Swedish strengthening.City Nien also suffered during the siege, but some houses and brick plant remained intact and were later used in the construction of the first buildings in Petersburg.On the site of the former fortress of the king ordered to plant the four tallest mast tree.
Nienschanz after taking
Northern War Contemporaries claimed that within 15 years, as fort Nienschanz will be forgotten, but the mapping data indicate that the remains of fortifications lasted up to 10-ies of the 19th century.In 1748 on the site of kronverka Nyenskans genius lay the foundation Rastrelli Smolny Cathedral.The inner area of the fortress will take a decade later yards Petrovsky factory.
In the early 90's.Twentieth century St. Petersburg archaeologists excavated on the banks near the mouth of the Okhta River.The collected findings allowed to open a museum, whose full name is like "700 Years of Landskrona, the Neva estuary, Nienschanz."The museum can present merchandising layouts and fortifications.And also finds that preserve the history.Grade 5 secondary schools significantly increase their level of knowledge, getting acquainted with the valuable exhibits of the museum.