The Middle Ages: the timeframe in Russia

term "Middle Ages" entered the scientific revolution in the Renaissance, thus philosophers humanists emphasized the connection of his time with antiquity: from the "golden age" of humanity separates them a medium, the interim period, "Dark Ages", as he called themPetrarca.Later the term, of course, has lost its meaning, but in historiography as the notion of common preserved the name "Middle Ages", a time frame which covers the period from the 5th century to the beginning of the 16th century.These boundaries are relative and differ in the history of the various states.

The conventions chronology

Chronology and periodization - the relative criteria, artificially introduced by the researchers, used for the reference of a time, comparing the events in different countries, and so on. N. This fully applies to the period called "Middle Ages"spatial, temporal scope of which justify the different national and foreign historians.As correctly noted Gurevich, the people of the Middle Ages as ancient or modern times, did not give the name of his era, did not realize that they are living in the period of the Middle Ages.In the separation of the historical process into chronological segments scientists are guided by some original features, quality characteristics inherent in a particular era.


How historiographical tradition represents Western European Middle Ages?Time frame (century) - from V.before the beginning of the XVI century.Within this nearly thousand-year period of time usually distinguish the following stages:

  • V-XI centuries.called the Early Middle Ages (or "dark ages", as this period in the history of human civilization is the least studied due to the paucity of reflection sources).It began after the fall of the Roman Empire.One of the most striking phenomena - the great migration of peoples, the conquest of the Christians of the Iberian Peninsula (the so-called Reconquista), the heyday of the Byzantine Empire, the Frankish state.
  • XI-XIV centuries.- A classic (or higher) the Middle Ages.The main event - the rapid growth of the population of Western Europe, almost universal spread of Christianity, the Crusades, the development of cities and urbanization, the emergence and development of feudal relations.
  • XIV-XVI centuries.referred to the late Middle Ages (some researchers reckon this period by the early modern times).This is the period of disasters, famine, plague, the Hundred Years War and the Mongol invasion, which seriously ravaged Western Europe.However, this time the Church of the Reformation, the great geographical discoveries, the development of science, inventions, achievements in traditional medicine.

Middle Ages: the timeframe for Russia

on territory occupied by Slavic tribes, the establishment of the feudal state was slower than in the West because many historians date the beginning of the medieval era to the IX.A new time begins at the end of the XVII century.with the rule of Peter I. Inside era allocated separate periods:

  • IX-XII centuries.- The existence of central Kiev state.
  • XII-XIII centuries.- The beginning of feudal fragmentation and penetration of the land under the rule of the Mongol-Tatar yoke.
  • XIV-XVII centuries.- The establishment and development of the Russian state with its center in Moscow.

Feature era

So chronologically looks the Middle Ages, the time frame associated with the events that resulted in permanent changes.At the end of V century.barbarian hordes burst in Rome - the main stronghold of the ancient civilization at that time, and at the beginning of the VI.ceased to exist last ancient school of philosophy.

key feature of the early Middle Ages - this expansion of tribal relations among the barbarian tribes of Europe and the formation of the feudal, the end of the period leading to the formation of centralized states and ruling dynasties.Radically changing the essence of economic relations in the Middle Ages.Space, time frames era strongly associated with the spread of the Christian religion, which has become spiritually reflection of feudalism as paganism was once characteristic of communal tribal system.

Slavic tribes Regarding all of the above features are seen in their history clearly only with the IX., When there is the establishment of the state with the center in Kiev.Around the same time, Russian ground penetrating from Byzantine Christianity Eastern (Orthodox) rite, and Millennium acquires the status of an official religion.

classic medieval

High Middle Ages (timeframe XI-XIV centuries.) Begins in Western Europe with the formation of the state of Charlemagne, and is characterized by the strengthening of the position of the Catholic Church, its dominant role at all levels of human activity - from politics to everyday life.The education system is dominated by the scholastic doctrine, ideology and material culture are deeply religious.

defines Christianity and Russian Middle Ages, a time frame which, as the content and event periods, are very different from Western.By the XII century.Orthodoxy was not only the official state religion: the last pagans, believers in the ancient Slavic gods remained except in remote forest areas and pose no threat to the existence of a centralized state.But the feudal strife that shook more or less than any state in the Middle Ages (the time frame in Russia - XII-XIII cc.), Weakened the Kievan state, and made it an easy prey for the hordes from the East nomadic Mongol-Tatars.Thus, strengthening the authority of the Church has contributed and external threat posed by the alien in the sense of ethnic and religious invaders.

distinctive features of the European and Russian periods

The fundamental difference in this period in the history of Russia from Western Europe is obvious: the empire of Charlemagne is the time of maximum flowering of culture, the establishment of the canonical image of the Middle Ages in Eastern Europe in all fieldslife of degradation associated with the burden of confrontation mighty Asian opponent.

After the overthrow of the Mongol-Tatar yoke of the former Kievan Rus' restore integrity has failed: the western lands were united in the Galicia-Volyn principality, and in the east all the greater influence received princes of Moscow.

final decade era of the High Middle Ages

end of the High Middle Ages in the West associated with famine that struck much of the land at the beginning of the XIV century., Epidemics of plague, peasant revolts and the Hundred Years' War.All these tragic events entailed literally extinction of half of the population, therefore, a decline in all spheres of life.

At the same time, Russian Middle Ages, a time frame XIV-XVII centuries., Began the era of the formation and strengthening of the state around Moscow.Russia was strong enough at this time to relieve the burden of the yoke of the Golden Horde.Moreover, many domestic scholars are inclined to see in the new Russian state, based on the Vladimir-Suzdal historical and cultural traditions, the characteristics of the Renaissance.This flowering of culture, architecture, painting, and the appearance of works of literature, focusing on the man and his feelings, rather than religious matters.

At the beginning of the XVII century.on the throne goes Romanov dynasty, whose representatives ruled the country before the overthrow of the monarchy in 1917

late Middle Ages and the transition to the new time

Such precarious thing as late Middle Ages, the time frame and the countries covered in different ways: somewherethe more clearly show through the features of modern times, and in some places retained the traditional feudal way.In the states of Western Europe there is a movement for the reformation of the Church, come the industrial revolution, is changing the philosophy and outlook on the world.A Muscovy nearly two centuries, everything remained essentially unchanged: the Middle Ages, because in Russia (timeframe IX-XVII centuries.) Ends much later.

Western European Middle Ages, a time frame, complete this nearly thousand-year period, it refers to the late XV - early XVI centuries.For point of reference is most often the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492

in Russia to complete the medieval period was only Peter I through a series of progressive and often unpopular reforms in the late XVII century.

Conclusions: Middle Ages of Western European and Russian

Thus, the time frame of the Middle Ages in Russia and Western Europe are very different, though the essence of the period is most similar issues.This domination of the church and religion in all spheres of life, and strengthening of feudal relations and the subsequent formation of the monarchy, which remain in the new time.

At the end of the Middle Ages began a clear technological progress - invented blast furnaces, a firearm, a printing press.The notion of education.Progress gradually manifested in all spheres of life.In recent decades, the late Middle Ages began the rapid flowering of art.