the south of Moscow is a unique historic palace and park complex, the greatest monument of architecture, history and culture."Tsarina" - open-air museum.
From the history of the complex
Places that today we call the Tsarina, have been known since the end of the XVI century.In those days it was an estate of Boris Godunov's sister, Queen Irene.Then the village was called Bogorodskoye.At the end of the XVI century buildings were destroyed by the queen, the area was in ruins, there was only a cascade of ponds, which was equipped with the Godunov.
Since 1633 these places were called Black Dirt.The owners of the village have become Streshnevo boyars, the relatives of the first king of the Romanov dynasty - Mikhail Fedorovich.
In 1684 Venetian nobleman gave way to the village of his grandson - A. Golitsyn, who was a favorite of the princess Sophia.When she was deposed, Golitsyn property was confiscated and handed over to the state.
In 1712, by decree of Peter I and the nearby Black Dirt land passed into the possession of Prince Cantemir - Moldovan ruler, a staunch ally of Russia in the confrontation with Turkey.The new ownership Cantemir built a wooden palace on a hill.
Tsaritsyno under Catherine II
Once the Grand Empress, passing through the territory of black mud, was fascinated by the beauty of these places and without hesitation bought the estate of Prince Cantemir.This happened in 1775.That summer for the Empress and her favorite, Prince Potemkin was built a wooden palace, consisting of only six rooms, as well as the most needed office space.
In 1775, Empress Catherine II ordered to build in the area a pleasure residence outside Moscow.Create a project and realize it was entrusted to the great architect V. Bazhenov.The Empress wished the construction was a Moorish or Gothic, the style, and the park was equipped like a landscape.
Museum "Tsaritsyno" in Moscow
In 1984, the park appeared in Tsaritsyno museum of arts and crafts.At this time began the restoration of many buildings of the complex.In 1993, he received an important time for the museum-reserve status, and some time later was included in the list of historical and cultural monuments of federal significance.Since 2005, the memorial estate "Tsarina" became the property of the city of Moscow.At the same time on the estate have started restoration.Landscaping works were led by the architect R. M. Morin.Currently ongoing activities on the improvement and restoration of parks - Bahrushinki and Orekhovskaya margin.
Palace ensemble "Tsarina»
This complex, built the best architect of the XVIII century V. Bazhenov and later underwent changes.Grand Palace consecutive intervals from 1786 to 1796 on the site of a pre-dismantled Bazhenovo buildings.He built the student architect Matvei Kazakov great.In some ways, he repeats the idea Bazhenov.At its heart - the two wings of a square shape, which were located chambers of Catherine II, as well as Crown Prince Paul."Wings" buildings are connected by a monumental and majestic middle part.However, despite the presence of bright pseudo-elements - towers, lancet arches, in its decision Palace is close to the canons of classicism: a three-part division of the facades, strict symmetry, balance of proportions.Largely Big Tsaritsyno Palace demonstrates "the power of the sovereign."It lacks the lightness and playfulness of the Bazhenov.
Due to the sudden death of Empress Palace was not completed.He never did, and was not used.Only in 2005-2007, there was a museum "Tsaritsyno" (photo you can see in our article).Today it is a very popular place among tourists.
Estate Museum "Tsarina": Petit Palais
all visitors unique ensemble attracts small palace located on a hill near the coast of the Upper Pond, not far from the bridge of figure.It was built in 1776-1778 by Vasily Bazhenov years.This small size structure, rather resembling a park pavilion, decorated with the monogram of the Empress.Unlike other buildings elegantly decorated "Tsarina", this grand and elegant emblem - the only decoration of the building, except for the top parapet complicated.There is a version that the palace was built for the Empress that she spent time here for a card game, which is very loved.
in a relatively small room Bazhenov managed to make six rooms.Two of them are so small that they may be only one person.Perhaps it is time for the room.The most spacious room is the main oval.From the windows of the rooms offering splendid views of the upper pond.In the palace all vaulted ceilings.
At the beginning of the XIX century it was used as a coffee shop, which is visited by walking in the park.Then there was a guardhouse for the watchmen of the estate.In the future, he did not used, and the beginning of XX century, in ruins.For seven years (1989-1996 gg.), The building was reconstructed.Now it is carried out museum exhibitions.
Thousands of tourists annually visit "Tsarina".Manor, Park Museum, fountains and, of course, the Bread House attract visitors here not only from our country but also from abroad.
Bread House - a building, part of a unique ensemble, built in 1785 by architect V. Bazhenov talented.It is deservedly considered one of the most original and interesting of its buildings.In addition, it is the largest building of the architect, preserved not only in the "Tsarina", but also in the whole of Moscow.
its name Bread House was in the XIX century thanks to the front-preserved facades of high reliefs that depict loaf and salt shaker.
building is being constructed as a kitchen cabinet.Once in 1786, dissatisfied with the work of Catherine II Bazhenov ousted architect of the construction of the manor "Tsarina" lead it became M. Kazakov.
Kitchen Bread House for some time been used for its intended purpose.There is also and office space Tsaritsin estate.
In 1849, by order of Nicholas I created the project of adapting the building for poorhouse and hospital.In 1852, there opened a hospital for the peasants.In 1920, there were spontaneous communal building, which gradually occupied the whole rendered habitable part of the body.They lasted until the 70s of the last century.
active restoration work began in 2005, when the city passed into the ownership of the Museum "Tsarina".Bread House has a new parapet, which is planned, but has not had time to build Bazhenov.The courtyard was covered with a glass dome.In 2006, the Bread House opened to visitors.Today it is a museum-reserve "Tsarina", or rather, its main exposure.In addition, there is an exhibition and concert halls.
It is the most valuable monument of landscape art.He began to take shape in the XVI century, at the time when the estate belonged to the Prince Cantemir.It was "a regular garden," in which there was a clear geometry of alleys and green spaces.
During the reign of Catherine II became fashionable parks, mimic the natural nature.They were called landscape.Of the park was entrusted to take an English gardener Francis Reed.
Blossom Park "Tsarina" has reached the end of the XIX century, when it was a structure of paths and alleys, there were various structures: gazebos in the Empire style, bridges, grottos.
At the end of XX century the park was in disrepair.In 2006 a museum-park "Tsarina" began to be restored.Landscape is not yet completed.But a large part of the park restored.
When visitors come to the "Tsaritsyno", Museum-Estate, parks, palaces make a lasting impression on them.This is evidenced by the numerous reviews of tourists.
Greenhouse farming has arisen on the estate still under Prince Cantemir.It was set up not far from the cascade of ponds, which was later called the greenhouse.In 1776 Bazhenov restored vintage Kantemirovsky greenhouses, and then built a new one.It was made of stone.In 2006, during archaeological excavations was discovered by her foundation.
addition to numerous fruit trees are grown myriad of colors, while the preference was always given roses.In the XIX century the economy went into decline.At the site of greenhouses there was a holiday village.
In 2007 the building of greenhouses have been fully restored.
Museum "Tsaritsyno" in Moscow - this is not only a unique historical and architectural monument, but also one of the most beautiful places in the capital.
Garden "Temple of Ceres»
long thought that the gazebo was built in the 1780s Bazhenov.However, recent studies suggest that this building was built in 1805 I. Egotov.He replaced the dilapidated building Bazhenov.As she looked in its original form it is unknown, but is likely to Raccoon in something repeated the work of the great architect or used some elements of his project.
Garden rotunda has eight Ionic columns.It is characterized by elegance, harmony and perfect proportions.Initially, there was a statue of Ceres - the goddess of fertility, but it has not survived to the present day.Today, her place was taken by the sculpture Burganova.Gazebo "Temple of Ceres" in the last century is often restored.The last time the work was carried out in 2007.
It is a real jewel in the ensemble of the park.It is the Middle pond.The fountain began to work in 2007.Every year from May connoisseurs enjoy the harmony of colors, music and light.Fontana miraculously transformed the old park in a fairy tale come to life.
All visitors manor affect the size of this facility.At 15 meters high rises 807 water jets.They fall into the mirror water surface area of 2500 m2.The fountain works, accompanied by beautiful music.73 provide a pump to fill his cup with water.
winter, the fountain is not working.His special closed dome height of 13 meters.It protects the structure from severe frost and temperature changes.
Cascade ponds in "Tsarina" was formed over two hundred years.The oldest of them - Borisov, who appeared during the reign of Boris Godunov.Upper and Lower ponds arose when Streshnevo estate owned.The lower pond was created in the middle of the XVII century.Middle Pond appeared in the 80s.Then High Dam was built on which were laid Novotsaritsynskoe Highway, section Bottom Pond into two equal parts.
How to get to the manor "Tsarina"
For those who decided to visit the Museum "Tsarina" mode of operation is very convenient - Reserve awaits guests every day from 6.00 to 24.00 hours.At this time, you can freely and completely free to enter the territory of the complex.
The Bread House, however, as in the Grand Palace, you can go from 11.00 to 18.00 hours every day.Just off here on Monday.On Saturday the operation extended to 20.00 hours.
Greenhouses can be visited every day from 11.00 to 18.00 and Saturday to 20.00 hours.On Monday and Tuesday in greenhouses and preventive weekend days.
light and music fountain the whole summer season (May to September) is open from 9.00 to 23.00 hours.
As already mentioned, the entrance to the museum-estate for free.All who wish to visit the Museum "Tsarina", prices will be pleasantly surprised.The Grand Palace, as well as in the Bread House, you can buy one ticket for 300 rubles.The cost of entry into one greenhouse is $ 100, two tickets will cost 180 rubles.And if you want to visit three of the greenhouse, then you have to pay 250 rubles.
The Grand Palace photographing permitted.It costs a hundred rubles.The Bread House and greenhouses - fifty rubles.
If you are interested in the unique Museum-Estate "Tsarina" how to get to it, we will explain.
In that case, if you plan to travel by public transport, you should travel to the metro "Tsarina".Exit at the radio market and go straight.In five minutes you will be at the main entrance to the park.You can get to the museum from the metro station "Orekhovo".
By car you can also visit the museum "Tsaritsyno".How to get there faster?It is better to drive up to the house from the street Tyurin.On this side there are two large parking lots.Over the weekend, here need to come early, because it may not be enough parking spaces.
Today we will take a short trip to the "Tsarina".The Museum is a unique natural and cultural attractions, it leaves no one indifferent.Here the best monuments of Russian history, the XVIII century.Now the manor house restored and is in excellent condition.So do not delay the trip.Come to the "Tsarina".Museum-Estate help you feel the atmosphere of ancient times, allow to appreciate the beauty of Russian nature.Come as a family, with children.They are such a trip would be very useful and will be remembered for years to come.