native of Asia Minor, hazel (hazel) spread in the center of Europe, the forests of the Caucasus, America and Canada.This member of the family Birch, due to its unique taste and excellent decoration, has long earned the respect of growers around the world.The derived culture, still known under the name of hazelnuts are grown on a commercial scale in the southern regions.Wild bushes are found in the forests of South Ural and Perm region, the Caucasus Mountains.Today let's talk about what is hazel is a shrub or a tree as it is grown and used?Learn about the types and distribution of plants on the planet, about the intricacies of caring for them, increasing its productivity and fine quality.
Hazel: This shrub or tree?
hazel shrub combines race, but among the more than 20 species of its representatives there are trees.For example, bear nuts, which will be discussed further - a magnificent specimen tree, tall and slender, with beautiful shape of the crown.However, most species of hazel - all the shrubs, wild forms of which form a dense undergrowth in deciduous forests.The most common and has high economic value of forest hazel or common hazel.The history of occurrence of the word "hazel".This native Russian name comes from the similarities noted by the outlines of the sheet to the body shape shrub lake fish bream, known since ancient times breadwinner Rus.
What is hazel?
vast majority of species belongs to the hazel deciduous shrub with large rounded leaves magnificent rich green color.Hazel tends to heat, moist fertile soils of deciduous forests, and gets along well with their residents: oaks, elms, maples, dominating in the undergrowth, and often form a solid wall.Wild species of hazel - it branched shrub with many stems coming from the rootstock.As they reach the height of 3-5 meters.Shrubs can reproduce vegetatively (suckers and cuttings) or seeds - nuts.Begins to bear fruit at 6-7 years when seed reproduction, the 4th year - during vegetative reproduction.In the summer of hazel bush easy to identify on the leaves, oval-shaped and decorated with small teeth on edge and sharp tip.Sheet hazel differs slightly rough to the touch texture.
mainly hazel culture - is a shrub 5-6 meters high with smooth bark, the color of which varies from grayish-brown to terracotta hues.Young shoots are usually painted in gray-green tones, interspersed with small yellowish specks.Young shoots in appearance similar to the phony shoots differs just enough densely pubescent.Shoots hazel is easy to mix and elm.And the leaves, bark and they are very similar in color and texture.But there are differences.In elm tree like this, always only one trunk, and the young shoots hazel plural, which is characteristic of the bush.In addition, hazel oval gray-green buds, and in elm - reddish and pointed.
Hazel - a shrub or tree, belonging to a monoecious plant, but with the formation of separate male and female flowers on the same culture.Male flowers are catkins, gathered in soft yellow blossoms like birch or alder catkins.Pledged in June and July, the fall they are clearly visible and bloom in early spring, as soon as the plant perezimuet.The wind picks up and carries pollen.
female inflorescences are practically invisible.Consisting of small, tightly pressed against each other flowers, they are inside special kidney, also formed in the previous season.During flowering leafy flakes covering the inflorescence, move apart, allowing the catch pollen carried by the wind, a beam of bright red stigmas.
Rhode hazel, numbering about 20 species, represented by a variety of cultures.All of them are different, but many species are characterized by high frost resistance and longevity.Hazel unpretentious, growing in different soils, but to thrive and bear fruit in the more fertile soils.Regardless of the type of nut (this shrub or tree) hygrophilous, but excess water it does not need.The bulk of it is able to make a little shade, but in open sunny areas and decorative hazelnut highest yield.Here are some kinds of the hazel.
This species is represented by a large multi-stemmed shrub up to 4-6 meters wide spreading crown.A special feature is a species of flowering before leafing.That's why the bees are so fond of hazel.Golden hazel catkins, appearing long before the mass flowering trees and shrubs, the bees help to recuperate after a long winter.The leaves of common hazel dull green, the back of the light, in the autumn - yellow together.Height hazel uneven.In the early years it develops slowly.At 5-6, the year is sharply in growth, forming a lot of young shoots.In nature, the forest hazelnut spread throughout the European territory of Russia and in the Crimean Peninsula in Western Europe and the Caucasus.
Bear nut or filbert tree
Bear nut - a representative tree, distracting from the overall system shrub-relatives.This medium-sized tree up to 15-20 meters in diameter and the crown to 6-8 meters, has a beautiful slender trunk.
Magnificent broad crown of the tree is beautiful and different from other types of dense crown of dark green foliage that bloom very early and persist on the branches.Hazel - wood, covered with whitish-gray bark, outgoing narrow plates.Bear walnut growing rapidly, and shadow-frost, it is not afraid of the drought, but it is better developed in the fertilized soil humus.Fruits - nuts peculiar kind, with a gentle wrap dissected into thin slices gear.Hazel tree is a rare, though undemanding culture: it is easily adaptable, her life expectancy is 200 years old, multiplies cuttings and seeds.Wild hazel - tree, which is found in the Caucasus and the Balkans, Asia Minor.Hazel tree - a rare visitor in broadleaf mountain forests.The Russian culture is protected in reserves.Bear walnut decorative, perfect for decoration of streets and alleys, is effective in linear plantings.
Lombard nuts (hazel large)
Monumental high hazel, a shrub with beautiful straight branches gray, growing up to 10 meters in height.The leaves are rounded and jagged edges.Lombard walnut - the culture of thermophilic, winter hardiness of her low.Cultivated since ancient times as nuciferous bush, hazel large spread in the Balkans and Asia Minor.
bush produces densely pubescent annual shoots.The leaves of this culture broadly, almost round to 10-12 cm in diameter, heart-shaped at the base, ending a short and sharp apex.Decorations of men earrings are large, reaching ten centimeters.The fruits form a crowded outlet in which they can be up to 8 protected fluffy tubular wrapper.
Lombard walnut is the founder of hazelnut cultivars that have commercial value.It develops in the fertilized perfectly fertile, breathable soils and is often used in landscaping as an ornamental shrub.
krasnolistnyh form hazel
These forms hazel very impressive due to the unusual color of the leaves and are multicore, high (up to 4 meters) shrub with dark purple large leaves, wrap the fruit in red and the kernel of walnut, colored pink hues.Krasnolistnyh hazel - bush is extremely decorative.But he is a true Southerner, and severe winters temperate latitudes Russian devastating for these types of hazelnut.However, the insulation in the winter gives good results: the plant survives, but does not bloom and bear fruit.Leaving behind only a decorative function, it creates a unique ambiance in the area.
frost-resistant and highly shade-tolerant hazel Manchu extended to the Far East, Primorye, Korea, North China.It is a shrub up to 4-5 m tall with multiple strongly branching shoots.It is famous for the healing properties of fruits and decorative qualities: bark brown tones, densely pubescent young shoots, leaves ample soft - dark green in summer, acquiring autumn bright orange or luxury golden tones.Fruit of the hazel Manchu - pointed nut, which is valued in Chinese medicine for excellent anti-inflammatory qualities.
Shrub, reaching three meters high, with dense, spreading crown.Asian Hazel got its name from the leaves change colors in a single growing season.The leaves are unusually shaped, broad obovate with three prongs on the top at blooming terracotta shade in summer - juicy dark greens and golden-orange palette envelops hazel autumn.Asian Hazel perfectly transfers even a severe drought, frost, differs very early fruiting.Kind of love of light, but some pritenenie suffers quietly.Widespread in eastern Siberia, in Asia, the Far Eastern regions of Russia.It is found in the undergrowth of mixed and pine forests, as well as on the edges, clearings on hillsides, forming impenetrable thickets.
multicore lush bush, not exceeding three meters high, was named after the type of outer tubular wrapping the fruit, bowing and twisting it into a tube, like a small horn.On the hairy legs are arranged solitary or paired off.Nuts are large (up to 1.5 cm), edible, but is hard to separate from the wrapper.View hardy and undemanding.
Cultivated since 1745.In nature, the plant is common in the eastern part of the North American states.
gorgeous hazel as an ornamental plant.It is used in avenue plantings and hedges.But in southern hazel grown as a food crop.Hazelnuts - a product of high nutritional value.It concentrated substances necessary for the body: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, almost all groups of vitamins, as well as a range of macro- and trace elements and unique compounds.In the food industry nut traditionally popular due to its high nutritional value and excellent taste.It is essential in the production of confectionery and various sweets, it is used as filler in the manufacture of chocolate, cream, caramel, and icing.Solid roasted hazelnuts - a favorite delicacy by many.
hazel species (wild and cultivated) have excellent decorative qualities and endows tasty and healthy fruit.