The resulting alcohol: methods and materials

alcohols are used in many industries and areas.Of them produce various synthetic polymers, plasticizers, rubbers, detergents and many other varieties of products.Preparation of the alcohols is carried out using biochemical and chemical methods.Many of them are the staple of Petrochemical Synthesis.Chemical synthesis of hydrocarbons is a relatively inexpensive manufacturing method.Also one of the most important techniques is the production of alcohols by hydration of olefins.The obtained isopropyl, sec- and tert-butyl and ethyl alcohols.Preparation of methyl alcohol (methanol) is based on the dry distillation of wood.

main processes, which produce alcohols:

  • Alkaline hydrolysis halogen derivatives: production of glycerol, benzyl alcohol and others.Hydration
  • epoxides and alkenes: ethylene glycol, ethanol and the like.
  • Hydroformylation: hexanol, methanol, etc.
  • oxidation methods: manufacture of higher fatty alcohols.
  • Recovery Methods: higher fatty alcohols, xylitol and others.
  • Biochemical methods: manufacture of glycerin and ethanol.

One of the most mass-produced product is ethyl alcohol (ethanol).On this basis it has been developed a method of making a synthetic rubber.Ethanol is obtained from the hydrolysis products of wood, ethylene sulfite liquor and enzymatic method of food raw materials.

Preparation of alcohols (ethanol and methanol) from food raw wood is expensive and time consuming process.Ethyl alcohol is much more advantageous and easier to produce from inexpensive hydrocarbon, for example, by hydration of ethylene.To obtain one ton of ethanol fermentation process, it is necessary to process four tons of grain, or eight tons of sawdust.For comparison, a ton of ethanol is obtained from 2.5 tonnes of petroleum distillates or gas ethylene.Man-hours in the manufacture of ethanol from various raw materials: grain - 160 Potato - 280, of ethylene - 10. Preparation of alcohols from petrochemical raw materials is less expensive and time consuming.

also very important chemical products is methanol.Modern production of methanol is carried out by organic synthesis based on the carbon monoxide (II) or a synthesis gas in an industrial scale.Process There are different schemes.They can be divided into the following three groups.

- Synthesis zinc-chromium catalyst at high pressure.This process is obsolete and replaced by the different synthesis methods at low pressure.

- Synthesis of copper-zinc-aluminum catalyst at low pressure.Using the methods of synthesis of the low pressure can significantly reduce the cost of energy production.With this method of manufacture requires a high degree of purification of the raw material impurities adversely affecting the catalyst.

- methanol synthesis in a three phase system, which is held in suspension in an inert liquid and finely divided catalyst.This method allows to increase product yield while reducing energy costs.Methods for producing alcohols improved.The three-phase system is an advanced technology manufacturing.