Fun and drunkenness in Russia has always been relevant.There is a tradition that at the time of Kievan Rus adopted Christianity, because Islam forbids to drink alcohol.Fun - also a necessary attribute of joy and happiness of the Russian people.
Who are the clowns?To learn in this article.
Skomorokhy in Russia - who is it?
First of all, clowns - a non-standard people of his time.Among some scientists are of the opinion that the clowns - is a separate class of people of Russia.There nobles, burghers, peasants.But who are these clowns?On this question we will try to find the answer in this article.
Russian buffoon - is the actor who moved and entertained people.A sort of a wandering representative whose music of ancient Russia was unique.
These people acted as singers, musicians, explorers shower and sentiments of the people.They could at the same time start to dance, play musical instruments and sing funny songs and lingering.
Folk Art of Ancient Russia - a clowns.They are the main carriers of folk art.Besides singing, dancing and playing musical instruments, they can show a variety of tricks to perform in masks and amuse the audience.They were the best talents of his time, who gave the soul of the people.
But whether all this is the answer to the question "who are the clowns?"No.
Skomorokhy in Russia were also teachers who passed on their skills and the science of laughter young.
They often took the invitation for various celebrations.In Russian wedding cheerful buffoon - is an analogue of our concept "toastmaster".The presence of these representatives of peace, joy and laughter always makes any celebration more cheerful and bright.
origin of the word
word "buffoon" in different sources is treated differently.However, they all have a common point.To understand who are the clowns is possible through the word "laughter."That is how the name translates from Arabic and Greek.
«joke, laughter, mockery, a joke master" - that approximate the words from different languages in the world.
word "buffoon" came to Russia from France, where strolling musicians and jesters called «scaramouche».Without them, it does not do any celebrating, so they gladly welcomed by both local and visiting audiences.
It is not known when Russia appeared buffoons.Scientists argue on this matter and given as arguments different facts.
However, the most common version says that the clowns appeared in Russia in the middle of the XI century.Many do this conclusion because of the frescoes, which were discovered in the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev.That was in 1037.The frescoes can be clearly seen that there showing people who are using different instruments and costumes amuse the crowd.
Skomorokhy constantly played in the narrow streets and wide squares.They not only carried out their own views, but also involved in the process of viewers who were watching them.Speech for the peasant buffoon ancient Russia - is always a holiday, which accounts for the whole family to take a look.
Skomorokhov often invited to their princes and boyars yards for a fee.They were very popular at court.Princes and nobles liked to discuss not only business, but also laugh with songs and rhymes buffoons.
They were so in demand that over time got even reflected in art and literature.Art - a set of murals and paintings by artists that depict the buffoon and laughing around people.
Even the Nikitich was a feast of his wife.He is dressed in a suit buffoon to get there.
Domra - tool buffoon
The article mentioned that clowns use special tools for music, which made their presentation more vivid and rich.
main tool buffoon - a domra, which belongs to a class of plucked and has an oval wooden body.It is of two types: three-jet and four-stringed.
three-jet - it is an older model dobro.She just used clowns ancient.Four-stringed instrument also appeared much later.
dobro history and the history of Russia crossed just at the buffoons.This tool is unique in that while used exclusively clowns and no one else.Who would say that it was only their "trick", which became the hallmark of itinerant artists.
Domra considered companion folk actors and musicians who went to their homes, streets, squares and fun people.Music of Ancient Russia was inextricably linked with this unique tool.To date, domra successfully sang harp, drums and bagpipes.Their combined sound is very harmonious and unique.
how to dress buffoon?
dealt with the way the buffoon, I want to learn about how they dressed.It is not to be random, and the first available clothes.
Skomorokhy - these are public people, the main objective of which entertain the people.Hence, they should be dressed simple, fun and scenic image, respectively.
Skomorokhy wore a tunic with stripes.They have always had a long and bright coat.He girded special belt of the thread, which was considered a mandatory attribute.Without such a belt to go to Russia for a man considered a real shame!Women in the ranks was not buffoons.
belt protects a person from misery, the bad and the evil forces that could harm his life and meant that the world took this man to himself.
cap buffoon - is a separate part of the image, which was considered a pleasure.It was oblong and always hung out in different directions.Cap buffoon gave its owner a ridiculous appearance, which made it possible for people to laugh not only with his jokes, but with the image.
Each group of buffoons who acted together, has its own program and repertoire.The most common genres of art such artists were the jokes, songs, plays, performances, folk songs and various scenes from the life.In particular, they portrayed simple and funny everyday situations that may arise in real life between father and son, husband and wife, relatives and friends.
in their work took the lion's share of humor and jokes.It buffoons credited with creating many epics and fairy tales.It was believed that these people were related to ancient paganism.They were not to succumb to the influence of the church and believed that the main thing to be mischievous spirit without the participation of the church in the lives of ordinary people.
greatest flowering clowns made at the very beginning of its activity.Around the XII-XIV centuries.
It was a time when clowns freely walked the streets and spoke with their numbers.They influence the minds of the people through the prism of ideas and humor.Most often met clowns at the fair, where a lot of people.There they gave their best concerts.Dance buffoons - separate elements that make their performances more impressive.
Over time, art and creativity buffoons in power and the church have questions.
Gradually music and an entertainment buffoons movement went into decline.There were several reasons.
Firstly, the church was opposed to buffoons, because they were associated with paganism.Most of the illuminated church teachings that the entertainment - it is a sin, which produces people on earth.Idleness - is not the best way to pay tribute to God for the life and the happiness that you have.
appearances buffoons in Russia was considered "bogomerzkih."The Lord does not recognize such public entertainment.Satire recognized outside the church.
Second, jokes and funny songs jesters were often linked with the church and the king.Skomorokhy strongly ridiculed the official Christian church in Russia.King also did not remain on the sidelines.Clowns joked about it.King took such amusement at his own expense.
Third, clowns often engaged not only fun and ideas.Joining together in groups, they went to entertain people for robbery.In the annals there is evidence of the atrocities stray artists in Russia.
All these factors have started to lead to a decline in the movement of buffoons.After a time they passed the baton booths and Raika, who retained some traditions of art of their predecessors.
Skomorokhy because of interference in their work of the church fell into disrepair until the XV century.But officially they have not been canceled.In different regions of Russia, they emerged and continued to entertain the people.
Only in the middle of the XVII century the famous Archbishop Nikon has achieved what the folk art of ancient Russia as clowning, it was forbidden to the official decree.It has become one of the major events in the art of that time.The royal decree on the abolition of buffoonery in Russia, said that "the buffoons and their listeners ought to beat Batog and destroy the equipment."
After this order freestyle artists officially disappeared from the pages of the history of Russia.However, their jokes and life remained in the tradition of the East Slavic peoples for a long time.
, over time, the followers of buffoonery movement in Russia, who gladly took over the equipment and cheerfully joked.
Disputes about buffoons
Skomorokhy history left their musical instruments, life and musical legacy.They are interesting not only as court jesters and wedding uveseliteli, but as leaders who have gone against the official power in Russia.
opinions buffoons unequal.Some believe that these are people who have gone against the church, the king and Orthodoxy, which at that time were inseparable.Just a joke against the monarchy and Orthodoxy caused anger among the upper strata of society.At the same time the king and nobles themselves were not opposed to listen and watch performances of the best clowns in Russia.
However, the contradictions between the church, the king, and the Orthodoxy itinerant artists emerged when clowns were not only jesters and merry fellows, but also real popular preachers who are not in the best light and joked about the monarch sanctuary.Opinion buffoons handed humor and emotional people.
It is not like the church and the king.Against them began a crackdown and persecution.
You could even say that the clowns - this is the first opposition in Russia, which was trying to show his popular alternative opinion.
contribution to the development of culture and creativity buffoons huge.They not only entertained people with his jokes, but also to pass on their work to the next generation, who documented in the annals of the activities of their ancestors.