Galicia-Volyn principality, whose geographical position - Eastern Europe is an interesting symbiosis of cultures close.There was in 1199, after the unification of Galicia and Volyn lands.It recognized as the largest principality southern Russia since the feudal fragmentation.
Galicia-Volyn principality has settled in the fertile lands of the South-West of Russia.And what interesting neighbors surrounded the young state!In the north of Galicia-Volyn principality borders with Lithuania, in the south - with the Golden Horde in the east - with Kiev and Turov-Pinsk principalities in the west - with the Polish kingdom.And behind the mighty ridge of the Carpathians is already stretched to Hungary.
Southwest Russia differ not only beautiful nature, but also a large number of reservoirs.Pripyat and Styr River flowed to the east of Galicia-Volyn principality, and the majestic Danube - in the South.
geographical location of Galicia-Volyn principality, frankly, it was obvious beneficial.
Who and how to form a single principality?
Education Galicia-Volyn principality happened at the end of the 12th century.Historians call this historical period the period of feudal fragmentation of Rus.
a key role in bringing the two lands (Galicia and Volyn) played a wise Prince Roman Mstislavovich.First he took Galich, and after the death of Vladimir Yaroslavovych (the last representative of the dynasty Rostislavovich) wise politician cleverly combined two similar cultural territory.The output turned influential Slavic state that existed as much as 200 years old!The prince himself entered the Russian and Ukrainian history as the "Autocrat of All Russia" (ist. - Chronicle).
objective reasons association of Galicia and Volyn
Galicia-Volyn principality (brief act of reunification presented above) arose not only because of the desire of one man, albeit a very resourceful.There are quite logical reasons why these two countries have decided to become one:
- good location of Galicia-Volyn principality;
- existence of common enemies: Poles, Hungarians and the Golden Horde;
- cultural affinity of residents of Galicia and Volyn;
- largest deposit of salt.
During the reign of Prince Roman things were going well in the Principality: flourishing agriculture, knights stopped constant strife, and neighbors in the face of the Poles and Hungarians started to respect the young state.But all good things sooner or later ends ...
time has come and died Grand Prince Roman.Immediately after this tragic event, the situation escalated again - the struggle for power.Also coming neighbors began to influence the policy of Galicia-Volyn principality.The period of instability will last about 30 years, as long as there was a new powerful figure - Danilo Galitsky.In 1238, the prince took power into their own hands.
next reunion and the heyday of the principality Danilo Galitsky
managed to establish order and restore the unity of the two lands.Moreover, the new policy to extend the influence of Galicia-Volyn principality of Kiev.During his reign (1238-1264 gg.) Slavic state to successfully resist the Golden Horde.
successor Daniel became Prince Yuri.When it saw the flourishing cities, the growth of foreign and domestic trade, as well as the peaceful life in the lands of Galicia-Volyn principality.
Ended tragic history of the state.The blow fell on southern neighbor: the army of Khan Uzbek overcome two young sons, Prince George.
existed for 200 years, Galicia-Volyn principality (briefly with the history we already know) had a great cultural influence on the development of Russia.The history of the southwestern territory is an integral part of the history of our land.
Feature Galicia-Volyn principality
This section discusses two aspects - the largest city and economic areas.The geographical location of Galicia-Volyn principality was very successful.That is why that area was especially developed agriculture (agriculture plow), and various crafts.
improved economic situation contributed to the growth of large cities.The biggest cities of Galicia-Volyn principality - is:
- Lviv - one of the most beautiful cities in the CIS.Named in honor of his son Leo Daniel Galician.
- Vladimir-Volyn - a city in the west of Ukraine.Due to its geographical position, in the 13-14 centuries.It formed a large Jewish community.Very tragic story of ancient people during the Second World War: the Nazis and the locals killed about 25,000 civilians.Today, the site of mass Rastrelli erected a memorial complex.
- Galich - the first capital of Galicia-Volyn principality.
on the territory of Galicia-Volyn principality was about 80 cities.Such data gives the chronicle.
Political system and political power
especially Galicia-Volyn principality is still a matter of controversy historians.Official science is of the view that the real power possessed influential nobles.They chose candidates for the princes, and took the decision to remove the person.Of course, the control of Galicia-Volyn principality depended on the individual.Especially if the prince became a wise politician, who could make their own decisions.
main authority is the Board of a large nobility.It included the most influential people of the principality - the bishops and the large landowners.Certain social system characterized by the Galicia-Volyn principality.Description it will be presented in the next chapter.
social system on the territory of Galicia-Volyn principality formed a feudal society.It consisted of about 5 classes, the difference between them was significant.Consider, in what was the enormous gulf between people belonging to different classes.Interesting characters inhabited Galicia-Volyn principality.The table below will tell about their way of life.
|class name||What possessed?|
|"Men of Galician"||large land owners, votchinniki.|
|Sluzhilye||feudal lords in the service of the Prince.Their tenure was quite arbitrary, very often it was stopped after the service.|
|largest church know||This estate belonged only educated people: archbishops and iegumeny.They owned the peasants and the land.The last prince brought a gift.|
|Artisans||This category of citizens were the owners of jewelry and pottery workshops.They settled only in major cities.Manufactured goods they went to the domestic and foreign market.|
|Peasants (smerdy)||dependent and most numerous class.Is subordinate to the feudal lords, worked on the fertile lands of the Western Ukraine.We do not have private property.|
Characteristics of Galicia-Volyn principality would be incomplete without a detailed description of classes.
Western Ukraine today
One of the most interesting and provocative questions: "Where did the inhabitants of the Western Ukraine is a vivid consciousness?" To answer this question, you need to go a little further in history, geographical location of Galicia-Volyn principality, and his fate will explain a lot.
historical land of Galicia-Volyn principality - a territory of modern Western Ukraine.Former Galicia roughly corresponds to Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv and Ternopil regions.Volyn - it is a historical region in the northwest of present-day Ukraine.It covers the current Rivne, Zhytomyr and Volyn regions.
After the fall of Galicia-Volyn principality, the fate of the two lands was largely determined by its western neighbors in South Russia.In the 14th century Galicia seized Poland and Volyn came under the control of Lithuania.Then came a single Rzeczpospolita, which again seized these territories.
many years, the population of Galicia and Volyn was influenced by Polish and Lithuanian cultures.Also, the Ukrainian language in Western Ukraine is somewhat similar to Polish.Hence it becomes clear why the western Ukrainians have always wanted to be independent.