Scottish Queen Mary Stuart lived a wonderful life.Her tragic fate still attracts attention.
childhood and early years
Mary Stuart - Queen of Scots from infancy, the regent of France (as the wife of Francis II), and one of the pretenders to the throne of England, was born on December 8, 1542 in the palace of Linlithgow, a favorite residence of the rulers of the Stuart dynasty.
daughter Princess Mary of Guise and the Scottish King James V, the little heiress in a few days after birth, lost her father.He died young, at the age of 30 years.The reason for such an early death was a heavy and extremely humiliating defeat of Scotland in a military conflict with Britain, betrayal barons, went over to the enemy, and the death of two sons.
Since direct and legitimate heirs after Jacob left, just born, his daughter was declared the new ruler of Scotland.
Because of the aging Maria, Queen of Scots, she could not rule, was appointed regent.They became her closest relative, James Hamilton.
military conflict with Britain
history of Queen Mary of Scotland is full of unexpected twists.Her father sought an alliance with France, and with the British state was at war.Regent James Hamilton, by contrast, started a pro-British policy.It was agreed the marriage of Mary with the heir to the British throne Edward.By this time she had her coronation.
against these plans was the Queen Mother, serving with a group of Scottish nobles for a new alliance with France.Their actions, as well as the requirement of Henry VIII immediately send him little Mary, led to a sharp change in the situation in the country.Came to power supporters in France, and Britain responded immediately to it.The invasion of the British troops in Scotland.They ruined villages and towns, and destroyed the church.Intensified and supporters of Protestantism advocating rapprochement with England.All this has led to the fact that the Scottish authorities appealed for help to France.It signed an agreement on the marriage of Mary and the heir to the French throne Francis.After this five-year Queen of Scots was taken to France.
life at the court of Henry II
summer 1548 Little Mary with a small retinue arrives in Paris.She was given a very warm welcome at the court of the French king.There she received an excellent education: to learn several languages, learned to play the lute and sing.
10 years after his arrival in France Mary Queen of Scots, and Francis were married.This union, a condition which was broadcast in the case of France, Scotland, childless Queen, angered at her home.
Scottish Queen Mary and Francis were together for only two years.After accession to the throne in his 1559 country virtually rules Catherine de Medici, the mother of the king.Francis died in poor health in 1560.His death meant the return home of Mary Stuart.
history of Queen Mary of Scotland is like a tragic novel.From infancy she was dragged into a political game of thrones, lived outside the homeland for many years and very brief rule six years.
In those years, when she was living in France, a country ruled instead of her mother, Mary of Guise.It was a difficult time for Scotland.Aristocrats were unhappy with the terms of the marriage of their Queen, Protestants increasingly intensified the effect, leading to a split in society.Even more problems emerged with the ascension to the throne of England Elizabeth I. She was illegitimate, and Mary, Queen of Scots, had more right to inherit the crown of England.It goes as follows: does not prevent Elizabeth ascend the throne, but not officially waives his rights to it.But while Mary makes rash action that will forever spoil relations between the two rulers.She puts on her coat of arms of the crown of England, suggesting that it is the legitimate heir.
outbreak at this time in Scotland's Protestant supporters of the revolution forced her to seek help from England and Elizabeth I introduced to the troops.Mary, Queen of Scots, could not help the mother, as had no influence, and Catherine de Medici, who ruled France in fact, did not want to conflict with Britain.
summer 1560 Mary of Guise died - it was the last obstacle to the final victory of Protestantism in Scotland.Shortly thereafter, dying Francis II.
In 1561, Mary Stuart returned to Scotland.The situation, which hit 18-year-old queen, was extremely difficult.Supporters of the union with France were willing to support her in everything.The moderate wing moved to its side only under condition of preservation of Protestantism and orientation of rapprochement with Britain.The most radical part of the aristocracy of the Protestant Queen demanded an immediate break with the Catholic faith and her marriage with one of its leaders - Earl of Arran.In such circumstances, we had to act very cautiously.
Board and politics
Mary Queen of Scots, whose biography is extremely interesting, in the years of his reign to be careful.Protestantism she did not accept, but also to restore Catholicism in the country did not try.It relies on the moderate block by entering the key posts in the state of William and James Maitland Stewart, his half-brother.Radicals tried to arrange a conspiracy against her, but he failed.Queen officially recognized the Protestant religion, but does not sever ties with Rome.This policy has brought positive results - during the reign of Mary Stuart in the country was relatively calm.
If the problems inside the country able to understand without bloodshed, the foreign policy brought a lot more difficulties.Queen of Scotland resolutely refused to recognize the legitimate heir to Elizabeth I, hoping to exercise their rights to the English throne.None of them are going to go to conciliation.
Any portrait of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, said that she was a charming woman.Participants on her hand was set.After the sudden death of Francis II and Queen returned to his homeland a question about her new marriage was particularly acute.Faced in 1565 young Henry Stewart, she fell in love with him at first sight, and that same year took their marriage.This caused strong resentment not only the Queen of England, but the closest supporters of Mary Queen of Scots.Her marriage meant the failure of the policy of rapprochement with Britain.James Stewart started a revolt against the Queen, but she managed to find support and was able to expel from the country conspirator.
second marriage proved unsuccessful.Being mediocre ruler, Henry tried to take control of the country in their hands, so that Maria resisted.Gradually they grew apart.Queen increasingly relied on the help of his secretary David Riccio, and Henry in retaliation friends with Protestants and took part in a conspiracy against the favorite wife.Riccio was assassinated in front of the Queen.She had to make an effort and even to reconcile with her husband to destroy stacked against her plot.But the relationship with Henry had been completely ruined.Tom has contributed not only to the brutal murder of Riccio, but the new craze Queen - brave Earl of Bothwell.And on the way to her happiness was the spouse.He could recognize their newly born son Jacob illegitimate and could not let that happen.
Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, was killed in the explosion of powder keg in the house where he was staying the night from 8 to 9 February 1567.He was found dead in the garden while trying to escape.
In the history of the participation of Mary in the plot against her husband is still considered controversial.Darnley and had other serious enemies, but popular rumor blamed the queen.And she, for some reason, did not do anything to prove his innocence to the Scottish crime.On the contrary, the word teasing all in less than a month after the death of her husband she married Bothwell.
this hasty marriage was a tragic mistake queen.She quickly lost support, and its opponents took advantage of the situation without delay.Gathering strength, they were against Mary and her new husband.Royal troops were defeated, the queen surrendered, before that failing to clear the way to escape her husband.The castle Lohvelene she was forced to sign a renunciation of power in favor of a young son.
Escape to England.Unsuccessful attempt to regain power
Not all nobles were forced to agree to shift their ruler.There was unrest.Mary, Queen of Scots, was able to take advantage of it and fled from captivity.Trying to regain power failed.The army was divided opposition and overthrow the queen had to flee to England.
intrigues against Elizabeth I
Queen of England found itself in a delicate situation.To help the military forces it could not send a cousin in France, too - Maria immediately began to make claims to the English throne.Elizabeth opened an investigation into the death of the second husband of Mary and her involvement in this.
Opponents Queen presented letters (except for her poems, they were fake), of which allegedly implied that she knew about the plot.As a result of the court and again broke out in Scotland unrest Maria finally lost the hope to regain power.
While in detention, she acted very recklessly, began corresponding with other royal houses.Against Elizabeth did not stop trying to offset it from the throne, and Mary remained the main contender for it.
Court and the execution of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
Its name is attributed to a number of uncovering a plot against Elizabeth, but she hesitated, not daring to go to extreme measures.Only when it came upon correspondence with one of the rival leaders of the conspirators, the Queen of England has decided to court.He was sentenced Mary Stuart to death.Elizabeth was waiting for my cousin tear requests for clemency, but in vain.
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, the story of the life that still dominates the minds of historians and representatives of art, ascended the scaffold and was publicly executed in the early morning of February 8, 1587 at the age of 44 years.Her manner was surprisingly courageous, and ascended the scaffold, his head held high.Stefan Zweig described the brilliant execution of the Queen in his work on this amazing woman.
Scottish Queen Mary Stuart in art
Her tragic fate and the cruel punishment were the source of many works of art.Stefan Zweig, Friedrich Schiller and other writers have dedicated their works to her.The execution of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, was the motive for many of the artists paintings.
Cinema also not left out.Life, in which there were ups and downs, love and treachery, betrayal and hope, reflected in the feature and documentary films.
The name of this extraordinary woman involves a lot of fictional stories.In the new series, "The Kingdom," the writers went to the distortion of the historical right - the Scottish Queen Mary and Sebastian, the illegitimate son of Henry II and Diane de Poitiers, here presented as lovers.In fact, this historical figure ever had.
In 2013 was established film "Mary - the Queen of Scots (Scotland)", which tells the amazing fate of this ruler, bearing three crowns on the banner.