There are three classes of complex inorganic oxides, hydroxides (which include the acid and base), and salt.Many metals and non-metals can form oxides, hydroxides, and part of the acid residues.Thus, included in the phosphorus acid residue PO4.There are several varieties of phosphorus oxide.Accordingly, it has various hydroxides, which are formed from these oxides.Extra phosphorus hydroxide - is phosphoric acid.In this article we will look at the physical and chemical properties of the element and its compounds, as well as tell you about its prevalence in nature and other interesting facts.
physical properties of phosphorus
It can exist in a variety of variations.Phosphorus - a substance that consists of a single chemical element.Its atoms are not combined in a molecule.Formula phosphorus - P. However, depending on the structure of the crystal lattice, the element may be in the form of three substances.
most common is white phosphorus - it has a waxy structure and high toxicity.The melting point of the substance is forty-four degrees Celsius and boiling - two hundred and eighty degrees.When the friction of the material he quickly ignited, so cut it just fit in the aquatic environment.If a long time to heat it at a temperature of two hundred and fifty degrees Centigrade, it is converted into red phosphorus.This substance is in powder form brown-red color.Red phosphorus, in contrast to white, is not toxic.
most stable form of existence of the element can be called black phosphorus, which according to some external characteristics similar to the metal: a kind of brilliance, has high hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity.
terms of chemistry
Phosphorus - a chemical element that is in the fifth group, and the third period in the periodic table.From this we can conclude that the valence he is five.In addition, because of the periodic system can be seen that the element phosphorus has an atomic weight equal to thirty-one grams per mole.This means that 1 mole of one will weigh 31 grams.Considering the chemical properties of phosphorus, we will talk about his reaction to simple and complex compounds.
Interaction with simple substances
The first thing to note - the oxidation of phosphorus.It is its reaction with oxygen.The result may be formed by two different substances - will depend on the proportions of these components.
The first version - of four moles of phosphorus and three moles of oxygen produced two moles of phosphorus trioxide.Write like a chemical reaction, you can use the following equation: 4P + 3O2 = 2R2O3.
second option - is the formation of four moles of phosphorus and five moles of oxygen two moles of phosphorus pentoxide.To express this reaction may be using the following equation: 4P + 5O2 = 2R2O5.
When both chemical reactions is a significant release of light.Further, phosphorus can interact with such simple substances such as metals, halogens (fluorine, iodine, bromine, chlorine), sulfur.Active chemical element can exhibit both reduction and oxidation properties.An example of the interaction can serve as the halogen-chlorination.It occurs in two stages.The first - the formation of two moles of phosphorus trihlorata two moles considered nonmetal and three moles of chlorine.This reaction can be expressed by this equation: 2P + 3Cl2 = 2PCl3.
second stage of this process is the chlorine atoms attached to the already obtained trihloratu phosphorus.Thus, in addition to one mole of the latter of the same volume of chlorine produced per mole pentahlorata phosphorus.We write the equation of this reaction thus: PCl3 + Cl2 = PCl5.
Laws of interaction of phosphorus with metals may be considered in this sample.If you take three moles per mole of potassium and phosphorus, get one mole of potassium phosphide.Record of such a process may be using the following equation: P = 3Q + K3R.
interaction with complex substances
to complex chemical compounds, which can react phosphorus, are acid and salt.We describe the characteristics of the order of contact of the element with these groups of chemicals.
phosphorus and acid
Among the other stands out the interaction of phosphorus and nitric acid.To carry out such reaction must take the following components: phosphorus in an amount of three moles of five moles of nitric acid and water - two moles.As a result of chemical interaction we obtain the following products: phosphoric acid and oxide of nitrogen.Writes the equation of this reaction as follows: 3P + 5HNO3 + 3H2O = 3N3RO4 + 5NO.
phosphorus and salt
Such chemical interaction can be considered as an example the consideration of non-metal sulfate Cuprum.To carry out this process it is necessary to take two moles of phosphorus five moles of copper sulfate, eight moles of water.The interaction of these substances we obtain the following chemical compounds: acid sulfate in an amount of five moles of pure copper - the same, as well as phosphoric acid - two moles.Record this process can be in the form of this equation: 2P + 5CuSO4 + 8N2O = 5H2SO4 + 5Cu + 2N3RO4.
Production of non-metal
In industry the substance in question is obtained from a chemical compound such as calcium phosphate.For this, the following chemical reaction: the said salt is mixed with sand (silica) and carbon in a molar ratio of 1: 3: 5, to afford calcium silicate, phosphorus and chadny gas in a molar ratio of 3: 2: 5.
phosphorus compounds and their properties
most common of the compounds considered non-metal hydroxide is phosphorus.It can be of several types, depending on the oxide of which is formed.Get phosphorus hydroxide is possible by means of a chemical reaction between its oxide and water.Due to such reaction produces various types of substances.Thus, of the available trioxide hydroxide (3) and from pentoxide - phosphorus hydroxide (5).These materials have acidic properties and can, in turn, react with metal salts, bases, and others.
Extra phosphorus hydroxide - is phosphoric acid.It is oxygenated and tribasic.Its formula - H3PO4.
basic chemical properties
hydroxide phosphorus, the formula of which is shown above, is capable of reacting with both simple and complex substances.Consider these processes in detail.Reactions
phosphoric acid with metals
Like other classes of chemical compounds, phosphorus hydroxide capable of reacting with metals.During this process, a substitution reaction occurs, whereby metal atoms replacing of Hydrogen atoms, thereby forming a salt and hydrogen, released into the air as a gas with an unpleasant odor.To this reaction can be carried out, the metal must be located to the left of hydrogen in the electrochemical series activity.That is, substances such as copper, silver and others like them, are not capable of reacting with phosphoric acid, because due to its low reactivity, they will not be able to displace the atoms of the compounds of Hydrogen.
For example, consider aluminum.When adding two moles of the element to two moles of phosphorus hydroxide we obtain an aluminum phosphate, and hydrogen in an amount of 2 or 3 moles respectively.The equation of this reaction is written as follows: 2Al + 2N3RO4 = 2AlPO4 + 3H2.
reacted with a base
hydroxide phosphorus, as well as many other acids can enter into chemical reactions with bases.Such processes are called exchange reactions.Their result is a new sodium hydroxide, and a new acid.Such reactions may be performed only if one of the obtained product is insoluble in water, i.e. precipitated, in the form of vaporized gas is either water or a very weak electrolyte.
Phosphoric acid and salts
In this case, as the exchange reaction occurs.As a result, it is possible to obtain a new acid and salt.In order to make this kind of reaction, too, must abide by the rules, which has been described just above.
Application phosphorus and its compounds in industry
primarily compounds of the chemical element is used to make a mixture which is applied to the side surface of matchboxes.A mixture with a phosphorus content of processed themselves head matches.Nonmetal considered pentoxide is widely used as a gas dryer.It is also used in the chemical industry in order to obtain a hydroxide, phosphorus, formula and whose properties have been discussed above.In addition, it is used in the manufacture of glass.
hydroxide phosphorus also finds application in many industries.First of all, it is used in the manufacture of fertilizers.This is due to the fact that plants for phosphorus simply vital.Therefore, there are a number of different fertilizers, which are made on the basis of non-metal compounds under consideration.For this purpose substances such as calcium phosphate.Salt is used as a fertilizer in the form of a hammer.Furthermore, for this purpose, ordinary and triple superphosphate.As the fertilizer can also serve as MAP and nitroammophos.In addition to the above, phosphorus salt or hydroxide is used as a reagent for detecting the presence in solution of silver compounds.Thus, the substance is added, which includes PO4 acid residue, to the solution.If the latter contains a salt or hydroxide of silver precipitate falls intensely yellow.This phosphate Argentum having the chemical formula: AgNO3.
structure of the phosphorus atom
As you know, all atoms consist of a nucleus and electrons revolving around it.The nucleus contains protons and neutrons.Electrons have a negative charge, protons - positive and neutrons - zero.Sequence number of phosphorus in the periodic table - fifteen.From this we can conclude that in its nucleus contains a proton fifteen.If the atom is neutral and not an ion, the electrons as much and protons.That is, in the case of phosphorus fifteen.
If one of the electrons leaves its orbit, the atom will become a positively charged ion, that is a cation.If one electron is attached form a negatively charged ion - anion.
in the periodic table of chemical elements, you can see that phosphorus belongs to the third period.From this it is clear that around the core has three orbits in which electrons are uniformly distributed.The first two are located on the second - eight electrons, and the third - five.
prevalence in nature
Mass fraction of phosphorus in the Earth's crust is 0.08%.It is not very common in the nature of the chemical element.However, there is a group of minerals, which include phosphorus.This apatite and phosphorite.The most common of the first group - fluorapatite.Its chemical formula is as follows: 3Ca3 (PO4) 2 • CaF2.It is clear, green and turquoise shades.Among the most common phosphate, calcium phosphate, having the chemical formula: Ca3 (PO4) 2.Moreover, phosphorus compounds found in the composition of various tissues of living organisms.
role of phosphorus and its compounds in the nature and the body
This chemical element is very important for the proper functioning of almost all organs and systems.In the first place it is not possible without trouble-free operation of the kidneys.This element is involved in the metabolic processes of the body.It also promotes the speedy regeneration of tissues.Without it, some vitamins simply can not be activated to give benefits to the body - which is why almost all vitamin supplements as an additional component is often added phosphorus.Furthermore, it is one of the chemical elements that ensure the normal functioning of the heart.It is, in addition to all of the above, participates in the process of cell division, so without a trace element of life on Earth.
regulation of water-salt balance - another function, which is performed in the body compounds considered in this article nonmetal.Furthermore, it is one of the main components of bone and muscle tissue.A large percentage of it is contained in the teeth.In addition, it is also worth noting that phosphorus is involved in ensuring the normal functioning of the nervous system.Symptoms of a lack of trace elements in the body under consideration are as follows: fatigue, low efficiency, irregularities in the nervous system (neurosis, hysteria, etc.), too frequent colds, exhaustion of the heart muscle, pain in bones and muscles, very poor appetite.To avoid such phenomena as the lack of phosphorus in the body, it is necessary to know what the products contained.First and foremost among foods rich in the chemical element considered should be allocated to the fish.Particularly high concentrations of phosphorus observed in these kinds of as sturgeon, mackerel, horse mackerel, tuna, sardines, capelin, pollock, smelt.Also discussed in this article, a trace mineral found in crab meat, shrimp, as well as dairy products such as cottage cheese, cream cheese, cheese.
Phosphorus, though not a very common chemical element on the planet, but it is of paramount importance both from an industrial and a biological point of view.It and its compounds, in particular phosphorus hydroxide used in the production of various kinds of products.The article also describes the properties hydroxide phosphorus (phosphoric acid), and particularly its interactions with metals, bases and salts.