In the late 19th century, the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts is holding a contest associated with the design of a building for the Museum of Fine Arts.Emperor Alexander III.This gave rise to the implementation of the dream of creating in the capital of the art educational institution of this type.
While at Moscow University was a cabinet containing a certain ancient values: numismatic collection, antique vases, casts of ancient sculptures and small special library.Based on all this, and there is a museum.In 1889-1890, the department is located at the beginning of the IV Tsvetaeva, is undergoing some changes.Develops sculpture section and a library.Plaster prints, models, Galvanic acquire special significance.In this regard, the Museum of Fine Arts turns into a teaching and educational and public institution, a single research program which includes basic familiarity with the centuries-old historical periods.
The first is the formation of the unique collections of works of graphic art, painting, crafts.VS Golischev, Russian scientist-orientalist, had a fine collection of unusual objects of culture of ancient Egypt.Later it acquires a state and then, thanks to the perseverance Tsvetaeva, transferred to the museum (1909-1911 gg.), Who becomes a par with the holders of the outstanding values of the ancient East.
Some connoisseurs and owners of unique things come down to us from the past, have contributed to the emergence and expansion of the institution.MS Shchekin, Russian diplomat, the Museum presents objects of decorative art 13-15 centuries.and works of Italian painting.Wonderful Italian sculpture of the seventeenth century were given to Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna and DA Khomyakov, whose father is a famous Slavophile.The archaeologist AA Bobrinsky donated candlesticks, clocks, and other examples of French art casting.Nephew Golenishcheva presented a collection of charts of old Russian and European masters.
Opening of the Museum of Fine Arts was officially the last day in May 1912.Honorary guests of the ceremony was Nicholas II and Empress Maria Fedorovna.The first director, who directed the museum from 1911 until his death, was appointed IV Tsvetaev.This agency immediately gained popularity among the masses.Attendance it was very high: up to 800 people on weekdays, 2500 - on holidays and weekends.The majority of visitors consisted of teachers and students of high schools, Higher Courses for Women, the People's University.AL Shanyavsky Moscow Archaeological Institute.Heritage Museum was not spared the artists and representatives of the clergy.Students come to school here, and for those who want to learn the culture of the time there are guided tours.
for several years (until 1930) is transferred to the works of Western European art from nationalized estates of Moscow and various museums (art and iconography Ostroukhova, History and institutions of the Kremlin) from the Tretyakov Gallery.Several paintings presented the Hermitage and shared his collection of Leningrad fund.Fold the center of the gallery was the work of the old Western masters.Drevnevostochnyh meeting contained a cuneiform tablets over a thousand and three thousand other monuments of the time.
In 1932, the institution was renamed and give it the name of the State Museum of Fine Arts, and five years later was given the name of Alexander Pushkin.During the war with the German occupiers large part of the collection was covered in Novosibirsk and Solikamsk.The building itself has suffered from bombing and shelling.In 1944, the Pushkin Museum began to recover.
In the middle of the 20th century closes the State Museum of New Western Art (GMNZI).In this regard, his collection is divided between Moscow and Leningrad stores.Pushkin Museum replenished scenic (about 300) and sculptural (more than 80) on 19-20 th century works of masters of the East and the Americas.He enriched graphics and archive collections.French post-impressionist works also included a new exhibition.Museum.Pushkin received them at the time of the capital's collectors.They were Ivan Morozov and Sergei Shchukin.Thanks to this entry becomes the owner of the Pushkin Museum of masterpieces, famous throughout the world.For the broad masses of the collection is available in 1953, when some of the works pass into the category of permanent members Exposure Art Gallery.For 20 years, there were changes in the entire structure of the exhibition, and then people are fully able to enjoy the works of painting and sculpture from the last meeting.
For 4 years (1949-1953.) Was presented a special exhibition.Museum.Pushkin showed a collection of gifts to Stalin.But then, updating, opens a permanent exhibition, are becoming more widespread.The walls of the building took more than 1200 shows, displaying the works of the institution and borrowed from domestic and foreign collections.1955 became a landmark in the cultural life of the capital.At this time, a unique exhibition of paintings in the Pushkin Museum.The institution demonstrates masterpieces of the Dresden Gallery.At the time, she was rescued from the destruction of the Soviet soldiers.Later the collection was restored in the walls of the institution under the watchful guidance of PD Korin.It was first transferred to the territory of Russia during the war art exhibition.Museum.Pushkin kept this treasure.This was made possible thanks to the diligence of staff offices.
Modern Pushkin Museum consists of four types of exposure:
1. Sculpture architectural mix of impressions.They are somewhat modified for the university stage, which survived the Pushkin Museum (Moscow).The exhibition includes sculptures of the Near East, the Middle Ages, the monuments of the Italian Renaissance and Northern.
2. Section of art and culture of ancient civilizations in the original.Also included are items from the excavations carried out by members of the institution.
3. Art gallery 8-20 century.It is represented by the works of the old European masters, Byzantine icons, ancient mosaics.At the same time you can see contemporary works by international artists and sculptors.Specially built this exhibition.Museum.Pushkin introduced the exposure so as to show the whole change of eras and trends of different schools.
4. The Department of personal collections of various items collected from the preservation of the integrity and with careful attention to the individuality of each collector.
Nowadays the building, which occupies the Pushkin Museum, is a huge number (670 000) works of sculpture and painting, arts and crafts, works of graphic art, numismatics and archeology, art photography.Presented in the establishment and a handwritten exhibition.Pushkin Museum holds documentary evidence relating to the history, scientific and epistolary heritage of its founder and other cultural and creative people.Thanks to its own research and restoration workshop of the Pushkin Museum can repair damaged works of art.Can be proud of it, and a special research library, as one of the best in the capital.Since 1991, the museum occupies a place in the State arch of especially valuable objects of cultural heritage of the peoples of Russia.