Relatively recently appeared in our language a new word - one-industry town.This concept is a real fact of our economy, yet little studied.
concept of "one-industry town" in the practice of our country does not mean that other, as "city-factory".It indicates a close link between the existence of the village and quite close now.At the same plant or factory was referred to as the city-forming.To date, the legal basis can not be found, which means "one-industry town".This word is only implicit in the regulations that mention city-forming enterprise.
There is a certain technique of regional development, which can be identified by one-industry town.It's a village in which more than twenty-five percent of the residents are employees of a single enterprise.And produced by this factory or factory production 50% relates only to one specific industry.
monocities - a rather complex structure.Here there is an inextricable link between the enterprise and settlements.And the biggest plant or factory are not only economic activity.In such an undertaking rests and social burden, thus ensuring all the conditions of life in this village.However, this situation leads to the fact that its products have a high cost price.It includes the cost of maintaining the social sphere.As a result, the final product because of its high cost is not able to compete in the market.
Which city can be categorized as single-industry?According to experts, this are towns where:
1. Operates one or several similar businesses with the same branch accessory.At the same time all the other economic entities of the city make products only for the needs of its population.
2. There is a chain of companies that have a technological links between and work on one particular end market (except those who manufactures products for the needs of the city).
3. The income of the local budget is largely dependent on the work of one or more businesses.
4. The population has a uniform professional staff.
In addition, one-industry town - a town situated in a considerable distance from other cities, or having developed links with the outside world in the form of roads, telephone networks and so on. D.
Classification by type
Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation considersin its list of all the Russian company towns.List them today includes 460 settlements.However, they are classified into several types.Thus, the Russian company towns are:
- have one forming enterprise;
- be satellites of major cities;
- have some core enterprises.
Each of these types of single-industry towns is different socio-economic environment and, consequently, the special needs of the content in the social sector.
Monocities Russia began to list his conduct was not at the time when the functioning planned economy of the Soviet Union.Everything happened much earlier.The first Russian company towns appeared under Peter I. This was a time when all over the country to organize new production, such as a cloth factory and iron works.
development Zones were then Moscow and the Urals.Some plants, settlements of that time still exist.It Asha, Irbit and others.
development of company towns began again in the late 19th century.During this period, workers' settlements arose on the basis of coal and light industry.So, thanks to the development of the manufacturing production were such settlements as Pavlov Posad, Orekhovo, Shuya and Drezna.Many miners monocities emerged in this period in the Rostov and Kemerovo regions.
establishment of Soviet power
The next step for these settlements was the beginning of the thirties of the last century.In those turbulent times, when developing the young Soviet state, one-industry town - it's part of the territorial-production complex.Among the most striking examples of such settlements - Novokuznetsk, Magnitogorsk and Apatity.Some of the company towns of the period were built with the labor of prisoners of GULAG.For example, Norilsk and Vorkuta.
evacuation of large enterprises
large number of single-industry towns appeared in our country during the Second World War.They emerged on the basis of evacuated enterprises.Later, some of the workers' settlements have merged with the nearby town.An example is the Bezymyanka, joined the Kuibyshev and Tankograd, which became part of Chelyabinsk.Some of the evacuated enterprises themselves later became city-forming.An example is the Shadrinsk.It originated on the basis of the evacuated from Moscow ZIL plant.
In the second half of the twentieth century, the production capacity of steel placed in already existing small and medium-sized cities.This occurred, as a rule, in the eastern lands of Russia.It also became the city-forming enterprise.Examples include highly specialized city of Power, which are far away from nuclear and thermal power plants.It Kirovsk, Volgorechensk, Novomichurinsk and so on. D. Specialization and different cities like Megino, Urai and Neftegorsk.There are companies engaged in oil and gas production.Also began to emerge company towns whose population was employed production mining and chemical raw materials, iron ore, coal, non-ferrous metals and building materials.In the same period, thanks to the policy of development of the food industry, any major meat-packing plants, sugar and cheese factory.They were built in many regional centers located in the European part of our country.Examples of such settlements are Zolotukha (Kursk region), Starodub (Bryansk region), Buzz and Petukhovo (Kurgan Region) and many others.
To implement the nuclear and defense policy of Russia in the country were created by the closed company towns.It Kurchatov and Polar, Snezhinsk and Baikonur.Such cities were independent administrative units, limiting entry and exit of citizens, as well as having special supplies.
rapid development of scientific and technical potential of Russia has led to the creation of science cities.The first experiment was conducted in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok.Several were later built Troitsk and Obninsk, Chernogolovka and Dubna, Zelenograd, and many others.
Already in the late 80s of the last century in Russia there were about four single-industry towns.Most of these settlements were built close to woodworking and forestry, the food industry and machine building.
distinctive feature of single-industry towns
Settlements built in the immediate vicinity of the large enterprises have them inextricably linked.Moreover, it is observed not only in economic but also in the social sphere.Self-forming enterprise provides the livelihoods of the population.
During Soviet times, the workers received monocities departmental housing.On the balance of factories and plants were boilers and kindergartens, schools and clinics.The industrial complex bear the costs of providing social facilities, including the costs in the cost of their own products.With the advent of the market economy is led to the lack of competitiveness of such enterprises.
industry town What does it mean for our country?This town, which supports the work of a large enterprise, and thus make their contribution to the economic development of the state.To maximize the efficiency of their single-industry towns are always located with reference to the large fields, the industrial zone of the state, and so on. D.
Thus, in the agglomeration area are company towns such as Voskresensk, Kirishi and Novomoskovsk.Their city-forming enterprise objects are related to the steel and chemical industries.High economic status monotown satellite agglomeration area arises from its proximity to the main administrative center.This allows the state to allocate less funding to maintain the social environment of the village.
on the eastern and northern regions of Russia constructed a large number of single-industry towns, specializing in the processing of raw materials.It Surgut and Nizhnevartovsk, Usinsk and Novy Urengoy.
Traditionally, to accommodate single-industry towns to use the territory of the industrial zone of the country, which is located in the Urals and southern Siberia.There are built Krasnoturinsk, Beloretsk, Sayanogorsk, and others. Monocities this belt, enterprises which are metallurgy and mechanical engineering, the least advantaged in the social sphere.This situation is due to their considerable distance from large administrative centers.
With the advent of nineties the bulk of single-industry towns found itself in a difficult situation.Contributing:
- recession level of production;
- decoupling of the planned economy;
- the failure of main products to compete in the market;
- a large number of social facilities on the balance sheet.
All these factors greatly influenced the deterioration of the quality of life of single-industry towns.The problem of factory towns lies in the fact that on their territory the company lost a significant part of the market.The situation is particularly difficult in those towns whose economies have dominated a nearby industrial complex.How can get out of a crisis such company towns?State support will certainly need them.
In particularly difficult situation were closed company towns.In connection with the loss of demand for the products they were on the verge of extinction.Lack of funding from the state led to the cessation of scientific research and higher unemployment.To date, the program monocities gated must come from existing in them a huge anti-crisis potential.Besides the state, taking care of its defense and security, it intends to continue to fund the activities of these high-tech enterprises.Today closed company towns began to produce products for export.For example, located in Novouralsk Electrochemical Plant supplying low-enriched uranium in Spain, Germany, France, Sweden, the UK, Finland and the CIS countries.
The "mono-cities" may have several mechanisms out of the situation.The first of them - the market.For its implementation need relocation of workers in those towns, which will be able to provide them with work.However, there are some difficulties.Among them - the lack of housing and lack of available jobs in the labor market.Low labor mobility is associated with huge expanses of our country.In addition, older people, which many in the company towns, it is difficult to break away from the scene, take retraining and to adapt to new conditions.
most acceptable solutions to problems are to a large-scale mono-cities supported by the state or in the evolution of urban functions.In the first case of non-business platform can be used for the development of any new business.Then the government should legislate a number of benefits for those who will produce the products here.In the second case, the city will have a losing their original functions.The company will be closed, and the town becomes the center of an agricultural region.