The problem of underdeveloped countries, food, unsolved to this day, there was not yesterday.Attempts to solve its ever undertaken at different levels.In the 40s of the 20th century in Latin America began the transformation that would lead to higher yields, and thus enable these countries to produce enough agricultural products to meet the needs of its population.These changes are called "green revolution".Indeed, there have been significant changes.They began a boon or a further exacerbated the situation of countries in need?Let us discuss further.
The term "Green Revolution" was first used in 1968 by B. Gouda, director of the US Agency for International Development.This phrase he described already seeing significant changes in the agriculture of Mexico and Asia.And they began with the program adopted in the early 1940s, the Mexican government and the Rockefeller Foundation.
Program of agricultural development in the countries in need of food following main objectives set:
- development of new varieties with higher yields that are resistant to pests and weather events;
- development and improvement of irrigation systems;
- increased use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and modern agricultural machinery.
«green revolution" is associated with the name of an American scientist, received the 1970 Nobel Prize for his contribution to solving the food problem.Norman Ernest Borlaug It.He was engaged in breeding new varieties of wheat since the start of the new agricultural programs in Mexico.As a result of his work was received lodging resistant variety with a short stem and productivity in this country for the first 15 years it has increased by 3 times.
experience later took over the cultivation of new varieties and other countries in Latin America, India, Asia, Pakistan.Borlaug, of whom said that he "feed the world", led by the International Programme for improvement of wheat, and later acted as a consultant and led teaching.
Speaking about the changes that brought the "green revolution", he stood at its origins Scientists say that this is only a temporary victory, and recognized as having problems in the implementation of programs to increase food production in the world, as well as the obvious environmental damage toplanet.
«green revolution» and its consequences
What were the results of the reforms, which lasted for several decades in different parts of the world?Some statistics.There is evidence that the number of calories in the daily diet of people in developing countries increased by 25%, and many attribute this to those achievements that brought the "green revolution."This was the result of land reclamation and increase crop yields of rice and wheat in the already developed fields in 15 countries.There was obtained 41 new wheat variety.By increasing the area of cultivated land in the 10-15% increase in yield was 50-74%.However, the transformation is almost not affected African countries in need, including those due to lack of development of local infrastructure.
downside is, above all, the impact on the biosphere.Traces of the drug for a long time banned DDT still found in Antarctica.Nitrogen fertilizers caused considerable damage to the soil, and intensive use of such fields has led to their almost complete exhaustion.Illiterate installation and maintenance of irrigation systems have caused pollution of surface waters.Today, a resource for further development in this direction is practically exhausted, and therefore, the severity of the food problem will only grow.
also a lot of talk about what is actually a result of the "green revolution" developing countries have become a kind of food colonies.The level of development of agriculture in private households are still low, and many private farmers have lost their fertile land.It remains an open question about the impact of GM foods on human health.