organic world of the Atlantic depend on temperature, salinity and other factors that characterize the waters of this part of the Ministry of Defense.The conditions for the life of organisms vary considerably from north to south.Therefore, in the Atlantic, there are areas rich in natural resources and relatively poor areas where the number of species in the tens, not hundreds.
role of living organisms in the natural complex MO
organic world of the Atlantic Ocean is experiencing a significant impact of long water area from north to south.On the variety of animals and plants affect large areas of the continental shelf, runoff from land and other factors of nature.Seas, the bottom and the surf are home to thousands of organisms that belong to different kingdoms of nature Earth.Plants and animals - the most important components of the natural complex.They are influenced by the climate, the composition and properties of water, rocks, forming the bottom.In turn, the organic world of the Atlantic Ocean influences the other components of nature:
- algae enrich the water with oxygen;
- respiration of plants and animals leads to an increase in carbon dioxide;
- colonies of coelenterates skeletons compose the foundation of coral reefs and atolls;
- living organisms absorb minerals from the water, reducing their number.
organic world of the Atlantic Ocean (briefly)
values of temperature and salinity are crucial for microscopic living creatures that make up the plankton and algae.These are important indicators for the Nekton - animals, free-floating in the water column.Features of the relief of the shelf and the seafloor is determined livelihoods of benthic organisms - benthos.Within this group, there are a lot of coelenterates and crustaceans.There are a number of features of species composition, characterizing the organic world of the Atlantic Ocean.Photos of the seabed, shown below, provides the opportunity to see the variety of benthos in the subtropical and tropical latitudes.The waters are rich in fish are confined to areas of intensive breeding plankton in temperate and hot zones.In these regions there is a variety of seabirds and marine mammals.High latitudes north and south of the prevalence of different birds that feed on the surface of the water, free of ice, and breeding colonies are building on the beach.
unicellular algae are an important part of the plankton.This group includes diatoms, blue-green, flagellates and other tiny organisms capable of photosynthesis.They inhabit the water column to a depth of 100 meters, but the highest density is observed in the first 50 m from the surface.Intensity of solar radiation during the warmer months leading to the rapid development of phytoplankton - 'blooming "of water in the temperate and polar latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean.
Photosynthetic green, red, kelp and other flora MO - an important part of the natural complex.Thanks plants get oxygen for breathing and nutrients entire organic world of the Atlantic Ocean.List of ground vegetation, or phytobenthos includes not only algae, but also representatives of angiosperms have adapted to living in salt water, for example genera Zostera, Posidonia.These "sea of grass" prefer soft soils subtidal zone, at depths of 30 to 50 meters underwater meadows.
typical flora of the continental shelf in the cold and temperate zones on both sides of the equator - kelp, red algae (whelk).They are attached to the bottom rocks single stones.Marine vegetation in the hot zone of poorer because of the high temperatures and considerable insolation.
economic importance of algae:
- brown (kelp) - eaten, used to produce iodine, potassium and algin;
- red algae - raw materials for the food and pharmaceutical industries;
- brown Sargassum algae - a source of algin.
phytoplankton and bacteria are food for herbivorous microscopic animals.Freely floating in the water column, they make zooplankton.It is based on the finest representatives of the shellfish.Larger united in meso and macroplankton (ctenophores, siphonophores, jellyfish, cephalopods, shrimp and small fish).
Nekton and benthos
There is a large group of living organisms in the ocean, able to withstand the pressure of the water to move freely in her column.These abilities have marine animals of medium and large sizes.
- crustaceans. treat this subtype of shrimp, crab and lobster.
- Shellfish. represent the group - scallops, mussels, oysters, squid and octopus.
- Fish. Births and family are the most numerous of the superclass - anchovies, sharks, flounder, sprat, salmon, redfish, capelin, sole, pollock, haddock, halibut, sardines, herring, mackerel, cod, tuna, hake.
- Reptiles. few representatives - sea turtles.
- Birds. search for food in the water penguins, albatrosses, petrels.
- marine mammals. Vysokorganizovannye animals - dolphins, whales, seals, seals.
basis benthic animals up leading to the bottom of the attached way of life, such as coelenterates (corals).
features of plants and animals of the Atlantic
- In the northern and southern part of the basin is celebrated in the presence of various fauna species and genera.
- plankton species a bit, but the total mass reaches impressive values, especially in the temperate climate zone.Dominated by diatoms, foraminifera, pteropods and copepods (krill).
- high biological productivity - a sign describing the features of the organic world of the Atlantic Ocean.Features a large density of life shallow water near the island of Newfoundland, the waters to the south-west and north-west coast of Africa, marginal seas and the eastern shelf of the United States, South America.
- tropical zone, as noted above, - an unfavorable area for phytoplankton.
- Productivity Nekton the Atlantic Ocean on the shelf and continental slope higher than in similar areas of neighboring oceans.The predominant fish that feed on phytoplankton and zooplankton (anchovies, herring, mackerel, horse mackerel and others).In open waters have commercial value of tuna.
- mammal species richness - one of the features of the animal world of the Atlantic Ocean.In the past century, they have been significantly extermination, the number decreased.
- Coral polyps are not so diverse as in the Pacific Basin.Not only sea snakes, turtles.
There are various factors that explain many of these features that characterize the organic world of the Atlantic Ocean.The conclusion from all of the above suggests the following: the reasons for differences related to the small width of the Atlantic in a hot zone, the expansion in temperate and polar regions.In contrast, the Pacific and Indian Oceans are the greatest extent in the tropical belt.Another factor that influenced the relative poverty of the Atlantic heat-loving animals - the impact of the last glaciation, causing significant cooling in the Northern Hemisphere.
organic world of the Atlantic Ocean: the objects of fishing
temperate and tropical latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres of the rich life.Among the fish species of commercial value, - anchovies, pollock, tuna, cod, hake, and others.It is producing mammals: whales and sea lions.Other biological resources represented mollusks, crustaceans, brown and red algae.Plants ocean go to pet food and industrial processing.Most shellfish are a delicacy, prized in many countries cuisine (oysters, squid, octopus, scallops).The same characteristic can be given to animals crustaceans, including lobsters, shrimps and crabs.
Fishing and seafood intensively conducted on the shelf and continental slope in the area.But in recent decades involved in economic circulation water areas that previously experienced no such a strong anthropogenic influence.Therefore, exacerbated environmental problems not only of coastal areas, but the entire ocean.