Excavation development: Basic Methods

pit - a depression in the ground, more simply, a big hole created everything for the foundation, as well as other engineering and technical designs.Excavation development is carried out exclusively by professionals with specific expertise and experience.These works begin with the preparation of project documentation and settlement: this step is especially important when it comes to carrying out excavation work within the boundaries of the city, where there are a large number of underground utility facilities that should be taken into account so as not to create an emergency situation.

used for digging the pit excavation equipment.Be sure to take into account the angle of repose, the friction characteristics of soil, etc.The walls in the pit may be vertical, but in this case additional fixing ground (if the depth is greater than two meters).This is especially important if there are residential buildings.Typically, in the process of digging pits carry out the following types of work: surveying services;

Organization of temporary access roads;distribution or export of the developed soil.


Excavation development is carried out by various kinds of excavators, such as a backhoe.This makes it possible to develop the soil mechanical method.In addition, it is possible to carry out the lateral penetration.The machine, in this case is above the bottom of the excavated soil and loads in truck or other cargo vehicle.Usually backhoes used when necessary to work with wet or moist soils.

Which method to use - the lateral tunneling or end - depending on what performance the car has.Here it is necessary to take into account the width and depth of the excavation pit.If the shipment of vehicles duplex, the end may be the width of penetration of 160 to 170 cm. If the supply truck runs on the one hand, the width will be 130 cm. Excavation pit in unloading the dump reduces the width of penetration, since the excavated material must be placed in the heap.When the pit width greater than the width of penetration (when moving in a straight line), use multiple end penetrations or move zigzag (the cross-end method).

Dragline excavators

Dragline develops ground, lying above the recesses.Work carried out by means of the side and end penetrations and shipment of soil and carried to the dump or in a vehicle.In dragline greater turning radius, and he digs deeper - is its main advantage over the machine with a backhoe.Therefore, it is effectively used when working with dense and soft ground, even if the water saturation is very high.The works can be carried out soil sampling alternately from each side of the truck (cross-shuttle scheme).It is important that the boom of the dragline rotates all the time during unloading.And if the soil is typed at the rear side of a goods vehicle - this is called a longitudinal shuttle method.

End development

After the development of the excavation carried out and all the soil is removed, the slopes are cut off, and the bottom is planned.If the bottom will be the basis of the foundation, the soil is removed not all - 10-30 cm less than planned.Operate bulldozers sweep the bottom of the pit.To refine excavation pits are actively used in the hydraulic excavator planning.The working body they telescope (moving in different directions), and the boom can be extended.Back pit fall asleep when the device works on the underground parts of buildings.