for the territorial definition of the group of principalities in Russia who settled between the Volga and the Oka in the IX-XII centuries, historians, was adopted the term 'Northeast Russia. "It refers to land located within Rostov, Suzdal, Vladimir.Applicable are also synonymous terms, reflecting the association of public entities in different years - "the Rostov-Suzdal", "Vladimir-Suzdal principality" and "The Grand Duchy of Vladimir."In the second half of the XIII century Russia, which was called the Northeast, in fact ceases to exist - that contributed to many events.
Grand Dukes Rostov
All three Duchy of North-Eastern combined the same land, changed over the years only the capital and rulers.The first city to be built in these parts, was Rostov, in the annals mention of it date back to 862 BC.e.Before its founding lived here tribes Meria, and all belonging to the Finno-Ugric.Slavic tribes such a picture had not like, and they are - krivichi, vyatichi, Ilmen Slovenes - were actively colonize the land.
After the formation of Rostov, which is among the five largest cities under the rule of the prince of Kiev, Oleg, mention of Meria and villages were less likely to appear in the chronicles.Some time Rostov henchmen ruled Kievan princes, but in 987 the principality has already ruled Yaroslav the Wise - the son of Vladimir, Prince of Kiev.With the 1010-th - Boris.Until 1125, when the capital was transferred from Rostov to Suzdal principality passed from hand to hand it to the rulers of Kiev, that had their own rulers.The most famous princes of Rostov - Vladimir Monomakh Yuri Dolgoruky - have done a lot to the development of the North-East of Russia led to the prosperity of the land, but soon the same Dolgoruky transferred the capital to Suzdal, where he ruled until 1149.But they were built many fortresses and churches in the style of the same structure of the fortress with a weighted proportions, the squat.When Dolgoruky developed writing, arts and crafts.
Heritage Rostov Rostov
value was, however, quite significant for the history of those years.In the annals of 913-988 years.common expression "Rostov land" - an area rich in game, fisheries, handicrafts, wood and stone architecture.The 991 is one of the oldest dioceses in Russia - Rostov - was founded here not by chance.At that time, the city was the center of the Principality of the North-Eastern Russia, led an intensive trade with other settlements in Rostov flocked artisans, builders, gunsmiths ... All Russian rulers have tried capable troops.Everywhere, especially in lands separated from Kiev, promoted a new faith.
After moving Yuri Dolgoruky in Suzdal Rostov while Izjaslav Mstislavovich rules, but gradually the influence of the city finally came to naught, and it began in the annals mention extremely rare.Center for half a century the Principality transferred to Suzdal.
feudal nobility erected mansions for themselves, while the artisans and peasants languished in wooden huts.Their dwellings were more like cellars, household items were mostly wooden.But lit rooms Lucin born unbeatable, clothing, luxury items.All know, bore and the decorate their towers, performed hands of peasants and artisans.A wonderful culture of the North-Eastern Russia was created under the thatched wooden houses.
During the short period until the center of the North-Eastern Russia has Suzdal principality had to rule only three of the prince.In addition to the Jury, his sons - cornflowers and Andrew Y. Yu, nicknamed Bogolyubsky, and then, after the transfer of the capital to Vladimir (in 1169) in Suzdal year ruled Mstislav Rostislavovich Bezoky, but a special role in Russian history, he did not play.All the princes of Northeast Russia descended from Rurik, but not everyone was a worthy kind of.
new capital of the principality of Rostov was slightly younger and originally referred to as Suzhdal.It is believed that the city got its name from the word "rested" or "create".The first time after the formation of Suzdal was a fortified stronghold and was ruled princely governors.In the first years of the XII century there has been some development of the city, while growth began to slowly but surely decline.And in 1125, as already mentioned, the Yury Dolgoruky left the once great stature.
When Yuri, who is better known as the founder of Moscow, there were other important events in the history of Russia.So, it was during the reign Dolgoruky Northeast Duchy permanently separate from Kiev.A huge role in this was played by one of the sons of Yuri - Andrew Bogolyubskii that sacred patrimony loved his father and could not imagine myself without her.
struggle with nobility and the choice of the new capital of Russia
Plans Yuri Dolgoruky, in which he saw his older sons, rulers of the southern kingdoms, and younger - the lords of Rostov and Suzdal, and did not come true.But their role is in some ways was even more significant.So, Andrew announced himself as a wise and far-sighted ruler.His wayward character scrambled to contain the members of its board of nobles, but here Bogolyubskii expressed their will by moving the capital from Suzdal to Vladimir, and then took himself Kiev in 1169.
However, the capital of Kievan Rus not attracted this person.Having won both the city and the title of "Grand Duke", he did not stay in Kiev and put him governor of his younger brother Gleb.Rostov and Suzdal, he also took a small role in the history of those years, as at that time the capital of the North-Eastern Russia was Vladimir.It was the city chose Andrew his residence in 1155, long before the conquest of Kiev.From the southern principalities, where he ruled for some time, it brought to Vladimir and the icon Vyshhorod Mother of God, which is very honored.
Choice capital has been very successful: almost two hundred years, the city held the palm in Russia.Rostov and Suzdal is trying to regain its former greatness, but even after the death of Andrew, whose seniority was recognized as the Grand Duke of almost all Russian lands, except that the Chernigov and Galic, they failed.
After the death Bogolyubsky Suzdal and Rostov Speak to the sons of Rostislav Yurevich - Yaropolk and Mstislav - in the hope that their rule will return city to its former glory, but the long-awaited unification of the North-Eastern Russia has not come.
In Vladimir ruled younger sons Yuri Dolgoruky - Mikhalkov and Vsevolod.By the time the new capital significantly strengthened its importance.Andrew did a lot for this: successfully developed a construction, during his reign was erected the famous Cathedral of the Assumption, he even sought establishment of a separate principality in his archdiocese to in this separate from Kiev.
Northeast Russia during the reign of Bogolyubsky became the center of unification of Russian lands, and later the nucleus of the great Russian state.After the death of Andrew of Smolensk and Ryazan princes Mstislav and Yaropolk - the children of one of the sons of Rostislav Dolgoruky attempted to seize power in Vladimir, but their uncles Michael and Vsevolod were stronger.In addition, they were supported by Prince Svyatoslav of Chernigov.Civil war lasted more than three years, after which Vladimir cemented its status as the capital city of the North-East of Russia, left, and Suzdal, Rostov and inheritance subordinate principalities.
From Kiev to Moscow
Nordaustlandet Russia totaled by the time many cities and villages.So, the new capital was founded in 990 by Saint Vladimir even as Vladimir-on-Klyazma.Some twenty years after its founding, a city in the Rostov-Suzdal, are not of particular interest to the ruling princes (until 1108).At this time, it took up the strengthening of another prince - Vladimir Monomakh.He was awarded the city the status of the reference point of the North-Eastern Russia.
fact that this small village will eventually become the capital city of Russian lands, could not conceive of anybody.It took many more years before Andrew drew his attention to it and moved the capital of his principality, which it will be nearly two hundred years.
Since then, the Grand Duke of Vladimir became magnified, not Kiev, the ancient capital of Russia lost its key role, but interest in it is not lost among the princes.Edit Kiev for the honor honored each.But from the middle of the XIV century the once outskirts of the city of Vladimir-Suzdal principality - Moscow - slowly but surely began to rise.Vladimir the same as at the time Rostov and Suzdal, and then - to lose its influence.Many contributed to the move to the white-stone of Metropolitan Peter in 1328.The princes of Northeast Russia fought among themselves, and the Moscow and Tver rulers made every effort to win Vladimir advantage of the main city of the Russian lands.
end of the XIV century was marked by the fact that local owners have the privilege to be called Grand Duke of Moscow, so the advantage of Moscow to other cities became apparent.Grand Duke Vladimir Dmitry Donskoy last wore the title, after all the rulers of Russia magnified Grand Duke of Moscow.Thus ended the development of the North-East of Russia as an independent, even overriding the principality.
Crushing once powerful principality
After moving to Moscow Metropolitan Vladimir principality was divided.Vladimir Suzdal princes handed Alexander, Veliky Novgorod and Kostroma took under his rule the Prince of Moscow Ivan Kalita.More Yuri Dolgoruky wanted to merge the North-Eastern Russia with Veliky Novgorod - in the end, it did, but not for long.
After the death of Suzdal Prince Alexander, in 1331, his land passed to the Prince of Moscow.And 10 years later, in 1341-m, the territory of the former North-Eastern Russia were again redistribution: Nizhny Novgorod moved to Suzdal, as Gorodets, Vladimir the Principality ever left for Moscow's rulers, who by that time, as already mentioned, also woreGreat title.Thus arose the Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal principality.
Trekking in the North-Eastern Rus princes from the south and center of the country, their belligerence, not only contributed to the development of culture and arts.Nevertheless, new churches were built everywhere, when you make that apply the best techniques of arts and crafts.It creates a national school of icon painting with typical of the time with bright colorful ornaments in conjunction with the Byzantine painting.
capture of Russian lands Mongols
lot of misfortunes brought the peoples of Russia, civil wars, and fought among themselves princes of the time, but more terrible trouble came with the Mongols in February 1238.The entire North-Eastern Russia (the city of Rostov, Yaroslavl, Moscow, Vladimir, Suzdal, Uglich, Tver) was not only devastated - she was almost burned to the ground.The army of Prince Vladimir Vsevolodovich was broken detachment Temnik Burundi, the prince died, and his brother Jaroslaw Vsevolodovich was forced to obey all over the Horde.Tatars only formally recognized him as the oldest of all the Russian princes, in fact all they refueled.The polls defeating Russia only managed to survive the Great Novgorod.
In 1259 Alexander Nevsky had a census in Novgorod, has developed its strategy of government and in every possible way to strengthen its position.Three years later, in Yaroslavl, Rostov, Suzdal, Pereyaslavl and Vladimir were killed tax collectors, Northeast Russia again came to a standstill in anticipation of the raid and destruction.This punitive measure avoided - Alexander Nevsky personally went to the Horde and managed to prevent trouble, but died on the way back.This happened in 1263.Only his forces managed to maintain some integrity Vladimir principality after the death of Alexander as it disintegrated into independent fiefdoms.
Liberation of Russia from the yoke of the Tatars, the revival of arts and culture development
worst thing were the years ... On the one hand - the invasion of the North-Eastern Russia, on the other - there are continuing clashes surviving principalities for possession of newlands.Everyone suffers: and the rulers and their subjects.Exemption from the Mongol Khans came only in 1362.Russian-Lithuanian army under the command of Prince Olgerd defeated the Tatars, displacing all these warlike nomads with Vladimir-Suzdal, Muscovy, Pskov region and the Novgorod region.
years spent under the yoke of the enemy, had disastrous consequences: the culture of the North-Eastern Russia has come to a complete standstill.The ruin of cities, the destruction of churches, the destruction of a large part of the population and, as a consequence - loss of some kinds of crafts.In two and a half centuries stopped the cultural and commercial development of the state.Many monuments of wooden and stone architecture died in the fire or were the Horde.It was lost many of the techniques of construction, slesarstva and other crafts.Many written records have disappeared without a trace, chronicles, arts and crafts, painting came to a complete standstill.It took almost half a century to recover the little that was able to save.But the development of new types of handicrafts went swiftly.
folk ruined land managed to maintain its unique national identity and love for the ancient culture.In some ways, depending on the years of the Mongol-Tatar served as the reason for the emergence of new kinds of arts and crafts of Russia.
Unity crops and land
After liberation from the yoke of more Russian princes came to the difficult decision for them and advocated the unification of their holdings into a single state.Centers and freedom and rebirth of Russian culture began to Novgorod and Pskov land.It began to flock here from the southern and central regions of the working-age population, bringing with them the old traditions of their culture, writing, architecture.Of great importance in bringing together the Russian land and the revival of culture has an impact of the Moscow principality, which has many of the documents of antiquity, books, art.
The construction of cities and temples, and fortifications.Tver was perhaps the first city in the North-Eastern Russia, where he began a stone building.It is about the construction of the church of the Transfiguration of the Saviour in the style of Vladimir-Suzdal architecture.In each city, along with defensive structures were built churches and monasteries: the Saviour on yl, Peter and Paul in a tanner, Basil on the Hill in Pskov, the Epiphany in Zapskove and many others.History of North-Eastern Russia has found its reflection and continuation of these buildings.
arts revived Theophanes, Daniel Black and Andrei Rublev - the famous Russian icon-painters.Masters jewelry recreate the lost relics, many craftsmen worked on the restoration of the art establishment of national household items, jewelry, clothing.Many of those came ages to the present day.