The chemical and physical properties of iron

Iron - a well-known chemical element.It belongs to medium reactive metals.Properties and application of iron will be discussed in this article.

prevalence in nature

There is quite a large amount of minerals, which include Ferrum.First of all, it is magnetite.He's seventy-two percent is made up of iron.Its chemical formula - Fe3O4.This mineral is also called lodestone.It has a light gray color, sometimes with a dark gray to black, with a metallic sheen.His greatest field in the CIS is in the Urals.

following mineral with high iron content - hematite - he is seventy percent of the item.Its chemical formula - Fe2O3.It is also called hematite.It has a color from red-brown to reddish-gray.The largest mine in the CIS is in Krivoy Rog.

third Ferrum mineral content - a lemon.Here iron shestdesyat percent of the total weight.This crystalline, i.e. in its crystal lattice woven water molecule, its chemical formula - Fe2O3 • H2O.As the name implies, this mineral has a yellow-brownish color, sometimes brown.He is one of the main components of natural ocher and is used as a pigment.It is also called limonite.The largest place of occurrence - Crimea, the Urals.

in siderite, the so-called siderite, forty-eight percent of Ferrum.Its chemical formula - FeCO3.Its structure is heterogeneous and consists of crystals bonded together in different colors: gray, pale green, gray-yellow, brown-yellow, and others.

latter is often a naturally occurring mineral with high content of Ferrum - pyrite.It has a chemical formula FeS2.Iron it is forty-six percent of the total weight.Because of the sulfur atoms of the mineral has a golden-yellow color.

Many of the examined minerals used to produce pure iron.In addition, hematite is used in the manufacture of jewelry from natural stones.Pyrite inclusions may be in jewelry from lapis lazuli.In addition, the nature of the iron found in the composition of living organisms - it is one of the most important components of the cell.This trace element must be ingested in sufficient quantities.Medicinal properties of iron is largely due to the fact that this chemical element is the basis of hemoglobin.Therefore, the use of Ferrum is good for the state of the blood, and hence the whole body.

Hardware: physical and chemical properties

Consider the order of these two large sections.Physical properties of iron - is its appearance, density, melting point and so on. D. That is, all the distinguishing features of the substances that are associated with physics.Chemical properties of iron - is its ability to react with other compounds.Let's start with the first.

physical properties of iron

In its pure form, under normal conditions it is solid.It has a silver-gray color and a pronounced metallic sheen.Mechanical properties include iron level of hardness on the Mohs scale.It is equal to four (average).Iron has good electrical and thermal conductivity.The latter feature can be felt by touching the iron object in a cold room.Since this material conducts heat quickly, it in a short period of time takes a large part of your skin, and so you feel cold.Touching, for example, to the wood, it can be noted that its thermal conductivity is much lower.Physical properties of iron - that its melting point and boiling point.The first is 1539 degrees Celsius, the second - 2860 degrees Celsius.It can be concluded that the characteristic properties of iron - good ductility and fluidity.But that's not all.

also includes the physical properties of iron and ferromagnetic.What it is?Iron, magnetic properties which we can see the practical examples every day - the only metal that has a unique distinguishing feature.This is because the active material is capable of being magnetized by the magnetic field.And the termination of the last iron magnetic properties which have just formed, for a long time itself is a magnet.This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the structure of the metal has a lot of free electrons that can move.

terms of chemistry

This item refers to the average activity of metals.But chemical the properties of iron are typical for all other metals (except those that are to the right of hydrogen in the electrochemical series).It is able to respond to many classes of substances.

start with a simple

Ferrum interacts with kilorodom, nitrogen, halogens (iodine, bromine, chlorine, fluorine), phosphorus, carbon.The first thing to consider - the reaction with oxygenic.The combustion of Ferrum formed its oxides.Depending on the reaction conditions and the proportions between the two members may be varied.As an example of this type of interaction can cause the following reaction equations: 2Fe + O2 = 2FeO;4Fe + 3O2 = 2Fe2O3;3Fe + 2O2 = Fe3O4.And properties of iron oxide (both physical and chemical) can be varied, depending on its variety.Such reactions occur at high temperatures.

Next - interaction with nitrogen.It also can happen only if the heating.If you take six moles of iron per mole of nitrogen, we obtain two moles of iron nitride.The equation of the reaction is as follows: 6Fe + N2 = 2Fe3N.

In conjunction with phosphorus is formed phosphide.To the reaction components required are: Ferrum three mole - per mole of phosphorus, is formed as a result of one mole phosphide.The equation can be written as follows: 3Fe + P = Fe3P.

Furthermore, among the reactions of simple substances can also highlight the interaction with sulfur.Thus it is possible to obtain a sulfide.The principle on which the process of formation of the substance is similar to those described above.Namely, there is a reaction accession.For all chemical interactions of this kind we need special conditions, mainly in the high temperatures, at least - catalysts.

also common in chemical reaction between iron and halogens.This chlorination, bromination, iodination, fluorination.As the name itself reactions, the process of accession to the atoms of chlorine atoms Ferrum / bromine / iodine / fluoride to form chloride / bromide / iodide / fluoride, respectively.These materials are widely used in various industries.Furthermore, ferrum able to communicate with silicon at high temperatures.Due to the fact that the chemical properties of iron are varied, it is often used in the chemical industry.

Ferrum and complex substances

From simple matter to move the molecules of which consist of two or more different chemical elements.The first thing to mention - Ferrum reaction with water.There are shown the basic properties of iron.When the water is heated with iron form the basic oxide (it is called so because the interaction with the same water forms hydroxide, in other words - base).So, if we take one mole of both components forming substances such as ferrum dioxide and hydrogen gas with a pungent smell - as in the molar ratio of one to one.The equation of this type of reaction can be written as follows: Fe + H2O = FeO + H2.Depending on the proportions in which the two components are mixed can be obtained di- or iron trioxide.Both of these substances are very common in the chemical industry, and also used in many other industries.

with acids and salts

Since Ferrum is left of hydrogen in an electrochemical activity of a number of metals, he spososoben displace the element of the compounds.An example of this is the substitution reaction which can be observed when adding iron to acid.For example, if mixed in equal molar proportions of iron and sulfate acid (aka sulfuric) mean concentration, thereby preparing iron sulfate (II) and hydrogen in equal molar proportions.The equation of this reaction will look as follows: Fe + H2SO4 = FeSO4 + H2.

When interacting with salts appear regenerative properties of iron.That is, it can be isolated using less of the active metal salt.For example, if we take one mole of copper sulfate and the same Ferrum, we can obtain iron sulphate (II) and pure copper in equal molar proportions.

value for the body

One of the most common in the crust of the chemical elements - iron.The properties of matter we have already discussed, and now we come to it from a biological point of view.Ferrum has a very important function at the cellular level and at the level of the whole organism.Primarily the iron is the basis of such a protein is hemoglobin.It is necessary for oxygen transport by blood from the lungs to all tissues, organs, each cell in the body, primarily in cerebral neurons.Therefore, the useful properties of iron can not be overstated.

addition it affects kroveobrazovanie, Ferrum is also important for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland (this requires not only iodine, as some believe).Also, iron is involved in intracellular metabolism, regulates the immune system.More particularly Ferrum in great quantity in the liver cells, as it helps to neutralize the harmful substances.He is also one of the main components of many types of enzymes in our body.The daily human diet should contain ten to twenty milligrams of trace element.

iron-rich foods such

lot.They are both vegetable and animal origin.First - this is cereals, legumes, cereals (especially buckwheat), apples, mushrooms (white), dried fruits, rosehips, pears, peaches, avocados, pumpkin, almonds, figs, tomatoes, broccoli, cabbage, blueberries, blackberries, celery etc.. Second - liver, meat.Eating foods with a high content of iron is especially important during pregnancy because the body formed fetus requires large amounts of this trace element for the proper growth and development.

Signs of lack of body iron

Symptoms of too little Ferrum entering the body are fatigue, constant freezing hands and feet, depression, brittle hair and nails, reduced intellectual activity, digestive disorders, low performance, to malfunction of the thyroid gland.If you notice some of these symptoms, you should increase the number of products containing iron in your diet or buy vitamins or supplements containing Ferrum.Also, be sure to consult your doctor if any of these symptoms you feel too badly.

Using Ferrum industry

Application and properties of iron are closely related.Due to its ferromagnetic, it is used for the manufacture of magnets - the weaker for domestic use (souvenir magnets on refrigerator and m. D.), And more severe - for industrial purposes.Due to the fact that the metals have high strength and hardness, with its antiquity used for weapons, armor, and other military and domestic instruments.By the way, in ancient Egypt it was known meteoritic iron, whose properties are superior to those of conventional metal.Also, a special iron was used in ancient Rome.From it produced elite weapons.The shield or a sword made from meteoric metal, could only have a very rich and honorable man.

In general, the metal, which we consider in this paper is the most versatile of all the substances used by the group.First of all, a manufactured steel and iron, which are used for production of various products required both in industry and in everyday life.

called cast iron alloy of iron and carbon, wherein the second is present from 1.7 to 4.5 percent.If the second is less than 1.7 percent, such alloy steel called.If carbon is present in the composition of about 0.02 percent, then it is an ordinary commercial iron.The presence of carbon in the alloy needed to impart greater strength, thermal stability, resistance to rusting.

Furthermore, steel may contain many other elements as impurities.This manganese, and phosphorus, and silicon.Also in this kind of alloy to impart certain qualities may be added chromium, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, and many other chemicals.Types of steel, in which there is a large amount of silicon (about four percent), used as a transformer.Those in the composition of which a lot of manganese (up to twelve or fourteen per cent) find their application in manufacturing parts of railways, mills, grinders and other tools, parts of which are subject to rapid erasure.

molybdenum is introduced into the alloy composition, to make it more thermally stable - such as the steel used in the tool.Furthermore, for all the known and commonly used in households in the form of knives and other household tools stainless steels must be added to the alloy of chromium, nickel and titanium.And in order to obtain impact-resistant, high strength, ductility, it is enough to add vanadium.When entering into the niobium can achieve high resistance to corrosion and aggressive chemicals.

mineral magnetite, which was mentioned earlier in this article, you need to manufacture hard drives, memory cards and other devices of this type.Due to the magnetic properties of iron can be found in the device transformers, motors, and other electronic products. In addition, ferrum can be added to the alloys of other metals to make them more strength and mechanical stability.Sulfate this element is used in horticulture for controlling pests (along with copper sulfate).Ferric chloride is essential in the purification of water.Further, the magnetite powder is used in black-and-white printers.The main method of using pyrite - getting out of a sulfuric acid.This process takes place in the laboratory in three stages.In the first step pyrite Ferrum combusted to obtain iron oxide and sulfur dioxide.The second step is the transformation of Sulphur dioxide in its trioxide, with the participation of oxygen.And the final stage the resulting material is passed through the water vapor in the presence of catalysts, and thereby to give sulfuric acid.

Getting iron

mainly extract the metal from two of its main minerals: magnetite and hematite.This is done using iron reduction of its carbon compounds in the form of coke.This is done in a blast furnace where the temperature reaches two thousand degrees centigrade.In addition, there is a way to restore Ferrum hydrogen.For this optional presence of a blast furnace.To implement this method takes a special clay, it is mixed with the crushed ore and treated with hydrogen in the shaft furnace.


Properties and application of iron varied.This is perhaps the most important in our lives metal.Becoming known to man, he took the place of bronze, which at that time was the main material for the manufacture of tools and weapons.Steel and iron in many ways superior to the alloy of copper and tin in terms of their physical properties, resistance to mechanical stress.

In addition, iron on our planet is more common than many other metals.Mass fraction in the earth's crust is about five percent.It is the fourth most abundant chemical element in nature.Also, this chemical element is very important for the normal functioning of the body of animals and plants, mainly because it is based on a built hemoglobin.Iron is an essential trace element, the use of which is important for the health and normal functioning organs.Besides the above, it is the only metal that has unique magnetic properties.Without Ferrum is impossible to imagine our life.