Smolensk cemetery in St. Petersburg, perhaps, can be called the oldest in the city.It came about at the same time the city itself.Moreover, this place attracts its mystery, mysticism and many legends.
It is believed that during the construction of St. Petersburg on Vasilevsky Island workers arrived from Smolensk.Due to the hard work and poor living conditions they soon died.And they buried them on the southern shore of the island along the Black River.Since then, the field along it became known as Smolensk.
However, most likely, this version is only someone's speculation.The names of the river and appeared after the construction of the cemetery in the place of the church dedicated to the Smolensk icon of the Mother of God.The author of this icon was Saint Luke.And Vladimir Monomakh moved it to Smolensk.Hence, an appropriate name.
In 1792 the church underwent restructuring and was re-lit the name of Archangel Michael.However, to this day the temple was not preserved as it was demolished in the 19th century.
«double» Smolensk cemetery
St. Petersburg and the famous cemetery have a common history and almost simultaneous start.So, after the victory at Poltava, due to which there is the northern capital, the city was not a single approved cemetery.Where necessary - and they were buried there.On the Vasilyevsky Island buried along the left bank of the river Smolenka (formerly of Black River).In 1710 there was built a military office, and the cemetery became a place for the burial of prisoners who died in the St. Petersburg prison.Rumor has it that the dead criminals in chains and direct buried.
Entitled "Smolensk cemetery" means two separate cemetery near - Orthodox and Lutheran (German).It is considered the oldest Orthodox.
official burial place of the cemetery was given in 1738 by the decree of the Synod.German cemetery discovered later - in 1747.
Cemetery tidied and landscaped.Since there was his own chapel, then in 1755 it was built the church in honor of the Smolensk Icon of the Mother of God.Since then, there were buried and parishioners, and residents of the city, and the Cadets.In 1807, the remains were buried in the Knights of Malta.In 1831 there was a fenced place to bury people who died from cholera.
By the mid-19th century the Smolensk Cemetery in St. Petersburg is the largest in the city.In 1860 the number was 350 thousand buried.Today, the territory of a country churchyard - about 50 hectares.
At the end of 1824 at the Smolensk cemetery collapsed flooding.All fences were torn down, crosses washed themselves burial grounds covered with earth so that finding them was virtually impossible.Many of the flood have not been able to find the graves of loved ones.The flood destroyed the entire archive, in the church, preserved only in the parish books that the priests kept at home.Church of Archangel Michael was destroyed almost to the ground.As a result, it had to be dismantled, since the restoration of the building is not subject.During the floods drown even three old women who were unable to escape.
In a word, the entire cemetery was given in a complete mess, and have suffered huge losses.It took a lot of time and effort to ensure that all clean and restore.However, many of the burial and were not found.For example, the disposal of the Knights of Malta.
Legend of forty priests
Smolensk cemetery in St. Petersburg usually crowded.People come here not only relatives to honor the memory of the dead, but simply wishing to take a walk and look at the graves of famous people, as well as those who wish to experience the atmosphere of mystery and mysticism.In the old historic part of the cemetery, which is running strongly, according to legend, you can find ghosts.Many legends are connected with this place.And the most terrible and sinister considered a legend of the 40 martyrs in the name of faith.Many scientists and historians believe that this is not just a legend, but an event that took place to be in reality.
In the 20s of the last century, authorities arrested forty priests, took place in Leningrad diocese.Those arrested were taken to Smolensk cemetery.They lined the excavated the grave and given a choice: either life in exchange for a renunciation of God, or death.None of the priests did not deny God.Then all of them buried alive.According to witnesses, three days out of the ground could hear the groans of the martyrs, and then lit up the grave of a divine ray, and it was quiet.
Despite the fact that since the tragedy took place is almost a century, people come to the grave to commemorate the forty martyrs.At the grave always lit candles and lay flowers.
Xenia of Petersburg
Smolensk cemetery is famous for its well-known throughout the city Chapel of Xenia the Blessed, the patron and guardian of St. Petersburg.And the name of the patron saint is also connected many legends.
So, one of them a young girl Xenia, burying her husband, give to the poor all that she had, clothed in a coat of the deceased and became insane.And in the heat and cold, she wandered through the streets and talked to passers-by all sorts of crazy vesche.But it soon became clear that everything said Xenia had deeper meaning.She had the gift of clairvoyance.
After Xenia died at the grave in the Smolensk Cemetery insane people began to come.And soon built a chapel in her honor.This church is not closed even during the Soviet era.People believe that if three times to walk around the church, thinking at the same time about their most intimate, the Blessed Xenia fulfill the desire.Perhaps that is why it is often possible to meet suffering lovers.
Not only legends
Smolensk cemetery in St. Petersburg is famous not only for its mysteries.In the cemetery are buried many famous St. Petersburg.
light of science, such as Zablocki, Viskovatov, Beketov, writers Sologub, Charskaya, Emin, artists Makovsky, Shebuev Jordan and Shchukin.
the central alley of the cemetery, you can see the graves of Mozhaisk - a man built the first airplane in the world, the creator of the armadillo - Popova, a famous traveler Semenov-Tyan-Shan, Valkitskogo navigator, commander of the submarine "Panther" Bakhtin, and the brother and nephew of Dostoevsky.
far from the graves of forty priests is Blok track.At this point in 1921, he was buried by Alexander Blok.The grave of the poet has long been moved at the Volkov cemetery, but the "original" location has not been forgotten.There is a memorial stone and lay flowers from admirers.
Besides the graves of famous figures, in the Smolensk cemetery has beautiful and unusual monuments.For example, a monument dedicated to the ranks of the Russian police, which has been preserved since pre-revolutionary times.This monument is constantly watch over the traffic police.
In post-revolutionary years the cemetery was closed due to lack of space.A part of the land given to the graves under construction ... kindergarten.
To save even monuments and tombs of famous figures, they rearranged the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.Today, the Orthodox part of the cemetery was restored: restored gravestones, chapel, ennobled alley, conducted a special archive of all burials.At the cemetery, do not bury (except in special cases).
German part resides in the vast desolation, and even rumors of the impending demolition.However, there are no changes, here and still come to look at the preserved monuments of the 18th century.
So, if you decide to visit the Smolensk cemetery, how to get there?The nearest metro station - "Vasileostrovskaya".Near the exit of the subway stop is.Take the taxi number K-249 and go to the street for fifteen minutes Kama.According to her, never deviating, you go straight ahead and - Smolensk cemetery.Address: Street Kama, 3.