first King of All Russia Ivan the Fourth, or Ivan the Terrible, which is characteristic of the person of interest to many of our contemporaries, acquired over the years of his reign, a huge amount of land, sometimes resorting to ruthless means.It is also known for creating the system of centralized power.But nobody knows that more contributed to his celebrity: service to the state or bitter and hasty temper?
Ivan the Terrible: personality and the era, as well as the surrounding atmosphere
Russian tsar, who ruled from 1547, was the grandson of Ivan the Great and his son Vasily III.His mother - Princess Mongolian origin.When Ivan was three years old, his father died, and five years later his mother died (according to some, it may have poisoned).Around maturing boy was an atmosphere of constant competition and fraud.Young people suffering from poor health, abuse, manipulation and lack of education.
struggle for power in the palace turns into a bloody feud.Ivan himself had seen or heard about the murders and beatings.And often he was subjected to verbal and physical attacks.Unable to hit the back of his tormentors, he vented his frustration on the defenseless animals brutally tortured and thrown from the tops of the towers.So he spent his childhood Ivan the Terrible.Characteristics of his personality - a difficult task, because much is known about him, but even more - simply forgotten or glossed over.
educated, extraordinary ... and incredibly devout
At the same time Ivan strenuously engaged in reading books and read them at an incredible pace.He writes a lot, learn to play music and becomes a magnificent rider.Intellectually, he was much more advanced than its surroundings.Personality and characteristics of Ivan the Terrible in the period of the carefully studied by many historians.This man is so striking in its originality and learning that it could easily be put on a par with the most competent rulers.
Yes, it is tough, but at the same time very pious and constantly observe the complicated rituals of orthodoxy.It takes an active part in various church activities.At sixteen, in 1547, Ivan was crowned.Three weeks later, he married Anastasia Romanovna.
She was chosen to parade the girls presented the young emperor.The queen bore him six children, of whom only two survived.During their joint residence thirteen Anastasia has always had a calming effect on the stubborn, nervous and erratic nature of her husband.
Home Board: conscientious leader
During this period, from 1547 to 1560 years., Estimate the person and work of Ivan the Terrible, as a rule, carries the most positive features.He became a conscientious and pious leader.Ivan has appointed an advisory council, established the National Assembly in the current reform of local government and made a new set of laws, which standardized the responsibilities and duties of the aristocracy.
Personality of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible became popular not only in the Russian state.He takes control of access to the Volga and the Caspian Sea, promotes trade with various European countries, including Britain, France and Holland.Moreover, by inviting foreign artists, engaged in the decoration of Moscow.And it should be especially noted for their high progressive administrative policies.So he began to reign Ivan the Terrible, characteristic of the person who is known not only for historians, but also many well-read people.
Awakening ill temper
In 1553, Ivan the Fourth suffers serious illness, during which begins to suspect his grandees of disloyalty.He decides to avenge their families, using torture and executions.And when his wife died in 1560, began a period of bestial tyranny.
Now his contemporaries Ivan appears completely different - Terrible.Characteristics of the person of the king walks you even in the school curriculum and every student knows that from that time he begins to differ boundless cruelty.Family Life of Ivan the Fourth becomes more unstable, highlighting its self-centeredness, uncertainty and manic temperament.
Promiscuous family life
In 1561, he married Mary Temrjukovna beauty, but soon tired of it.Two years after her death, Ivan marry Marfa Sobakina - the daughter of a merchant who died two weeks later.
fourth wife of Ivan the Terrible - Anna A. Koltovskaya.It sends it to the monastery, and in 1575 he married for the fifth time on to Anna Vasilchikova.Unreasonable lady has got a lover, whom Ivan the Fourth planted on a stake directly under her window, and the very adulteress vows in nuns.His last wife was Maria Feodorovna Nagaya.Ivan the Fourth married her in 1581.There are versions that some of the wives of Ivan the Terrible died of poisoning.
ruler, famous due to ill-liking
course readers know many historical figures.Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, and so on.But Ivan fourth - is the king of which heard everyone, even those who do not know the history.What caused such universal popularity?
This is probably the toughest period of his reign, which had its heyday from 1564 to 1572 years.When, according to historical sources, John V. mercilessly tortured and killed thousands of his subjects, and even many of his own.His goal was to clear the ground of "treacherous elements".In 1570, on the basis of unproven allegations of treason entire city of Novgorod was tortured.Sixty thousand people were massacred in one week.
Should this judge strictly historical person
Ivan Fourth ruled until 1584.Some historians have noted his services to the power, someone reproaches of excessive suspicion and brutality, many put him in the guilt of infanticide ... How to find out who is right?The only possible option - to delve into the history, but it will take a very long time.So we go the other way.What will help to get acquainted with any person, whether a neighbor Uncle Bob or the famous Ivan the Terrible?Personality characteristics.Briefly pausing only basic details, it is possible to note the endless suspicion, insatiable cruelty and extreme corruption.According to historians, this is the most outstanding traits of the king.
During his reign, hardly a single family of noble origin was not affected by the willfulness of the king.Countless agricultural fields have been abandoned during the attack the guardsmen, and landowners have been forced to leave their homes in search of salvation.As soon as this man did not call: tyrant, a despot, a maniac, a murderer of his own son ... "In general, - the reader will say, - gloomy personality."And childhood of Ivan the Terrible has played a decisive role.Because, most likely, already in his early years in the boy was laid down that painful cruelty, which manifested itself in adulthood.Growing up in that atmosphere that reigned in the palace of Ivan the Fourth was unable to communicate with his mother or his father, he no no support - neither physical nor moral.So it is not for us to judge his character instability or failure of the psyche.