Ancient History is full of interesting questions and even puzzles.Most of all, we have never really know how many great civilizations and could not be born when he crushed their neighbors, stronger and more successful in military and economic terms.But some of the people were able to "break out in people."Sometimes this contributed to the collapse or weakening of powerful neighbors.
These were the Kassites, once released from the normal hill tribes such once were, and the Phoenicians, vegetated under tough enough control of the Egyptians.But all it come to an end, and Egypt began to wane.Shortly thereafter, as the city of the Phoenicians, and all of his people began to quickly develop and prosper.
Who were they?
Contemporaries described this people: "They were amazing people, equally easy to manage both for peaceful and military affairs.They invented their writing, achieved unprecedented success in politics, public administration and Navigation.The Phoenicians were traders have from God. "
reviewing the information provided by modern anthropologists, we can even imagine the appearance of these people.Like many people of that era, they did not differ heroic story.Men were rarely above 1.63 meters, women - 1.57 meters.Judging by the remaining images, people were narrow, slightly elongated face, almond-shaped eyes, curly hair and a short, straight nose.
Clothing Phoenicians was bright and colorful.So, the Egyptians wrote that the people in the crowd stood the pharaoh aliens like "butterflies in the sheep's fleece."Men and women are equally loved in Phoenicia elegant jewelry made of precious metals and stones.
main Phoenician policies
As Egypt began to take positions in political and military terms, Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, Arwad and some other policies immediately declare their independence.And it was not entirely surprising.The fact that not only the city of the Phoenicians, but also all the other large settlements at the time were virtually autonomous states.
Often there had "personal" the king, its faith and its clergy, its own army, its own to arm themselves as artisans.About the farmers and say no!They are much more impressed by the idea of paying taxes only in one pocket, and not a few.This idea quickly came to Tir other.The city quickly became completely independent, although some time and submitted formally Sidon.
While the first among equals was this city, but the time is fast coming to an end.Scary raid "Sea Peoples" did not leave the once majestic settlement stone unturned, and then the city of the Phoenicians began to listen to the views of Tyre.Last while just reached its peak of development.Then sat on the throne of King Hiram I.
In many sources, there is evidence that he was a contemporary of the great Solomon, king of Judah (about 950 BC. E.).Hiram began his accomplishments with that made massive artificial mound around the city, almost doubling its territory.King of luck: soon his prospectors dug in these places a good source of fresh water, so that Tyre has become a virtually impregnable stronghold.There are also achievements of the time of the Phoenicians in the irrigation business.
Through an elaborate system of irrigation and the makings of selection, they can fully provide itself with food.In those days it was an incredible progress in the development of the state.
emergence of Carthage
No wonder that the city will soon tied the strong trade relations with all its neighbors.Most likely, Hiram began the colonization of modern Tunisia.This assumption is based on the fact that his heirs have laid there Carthage, and the terrain itself was well known to them, just as the builders choose the best location for a new policy.Were founded some small colonies of the Phoenicians, details of which to the present time is not reached.
Tradition says that its tab occurred in 814 BC.e.Soon Phoenicians actively traded with Mesopotamia and the peoples inhabiting the valley of the Nile.In addition, they gradually settled permanently in areas from which it was possible to control the approaches to the Mediterranean.All this has led to the fact that of all the cities of this state its value for a long time it remained Carthage.History has brought us to the attention of the majestic Hannibal and his struggle with Rome.
What wealth based policies?
to attract new people (military, in particular), the kings of the cities have complained of faithful service to the ground.Within rural communities also existed certain landed property, which is distributed among its members according to the merits and influence the individual.However, by the time their own agricultural production only feed Phoenicia, but trading profit influenced little.
Where more money the city Phoenicians were developing precious metals deposits in the mountains of Lebanon.In addition, there has grown a lot of valuable species of trees, the wood of which quickly became an important export item.Loved foreign merchants Phoenician wool, dyed purple, the secret of which was known only to scholars of Tyre.Since the VIII - VII centuries.BC.e.It is becoming increasingly important production of refined and elegant glass products, which are also in great demand among the foreign merchants.
expansion of maritime trade
After Egypt finally collapsed, Tyre and other cities began to grow rich with surprising speed.Almost all of the Phoenicians colony grew rapidly, many of them became independent states.They quickly seized the Egyptians all trade channels and enrichment process went even faster.
The Phoenicians traded?
be understood that the Phoenicia in ancient times grew rich not only because of the sale of manufactured goods in its territory.First of all, it has grown at the expense of the welfare of the resale of luxury items and rare items (jewelry, in particular).In addition, the inhabitants of this country were not only excellent sailors, but also desperate pirates.All the loot is often quite officially handed over in the Phoenician cities of the ancient "privateers" received a decent sum.
Remembering that Phoenicians - sailors from birth, the neighboring countries do not dare to bully them as navy States could deliver a lot of problems of offenders.At the same time, the "glory" of the people was such that even the worst enemies could to forget their strife to joint forces to drown a couple of their ships.The Phoenicians knew about it, and therefore did not disdain to make daring maritime raids on coastal settlements, inhabited polls diverting their people in bondage.
is not surprising that one of the main income items of the same maritime trade of Tyre were slaves.There is evidence that the ancient Phoenicia was one of those unique states in which the kings of policies could lend considerable amount of ordinary citizens.This was done not for the sake of altruism, but to the development of "business": people receiving money from the state, which could only buy a ship and stocks of goods for the first time.The key to getting the family loyalty "to bestow."Simply put, cheat with the money was not in the interests of citizens.
land routes Phoenicians mastered so far the dispute.But that all changed around the first millennium BC.uh, when people were able to tame camels.People hardened traders could not miss such a unique opportunity, and therefore the development of the same Syria began immediately.
You would think that in ancient Phoenicia was just a branch of the paradise on earth, where free citizens were free to trade and make money.It was not so easy.Yes, constantly developing trade brought huge profits to the state, and almost any free man could open his own business.
But a significant number of slaves, without which it could not function Phoenician trade, an ever-increasing number of destitute debtors bankrupt and representatives of families gradually turns into a real bomb, on which "exploded" after an ancient Phoenicia.
slave trade and the class struggle
In the ancient world this country was bad fame arose because of the predilection of its people to the slave trade.A huge number of "live goods" sold to other countries, but also the ancient Phoenicia badly needed in these people: workshops and slipways shipbuilding yards, quarries and vineyards, roads and cultivation of sheep ... In a word, no slave labor throughout the state economy immediately what wouldend.
All the achievements of the Phoenicians, particularly in the field of building quality roads and grandiose churches is based on the work of slaves.However, this phenomenon has a downside, which was often extremely unpleasant and even deadly for themselves "masters of the world."
Almost all contemporary evidence that the country was tense and constantly sharpens the class struggle.So, the Greeks have repeatedly written about the grand slave rebellion in Tyre, which was joined by thousands of low-income citizens.Management attributed the uprising certain Abdastratu (Staratonu).Oddly enough, but a big massacre, which took place approximately in the IX century BC, ended in complete and unconditional victory of slaves.
Greek historians suggest that all men are "privileged" classes were mercilessly slaughtered, and their women are distributed among the insurgents who inhabited Tyre.The city is completely deserted for a long time.
paradoxes of domestic policy and the gradual extinction of
Generally, in the Greek historical themes almost universally reported on some mysterious "Phoenician misfortunes."It may be all that - echoes of the grand slave revolt that swept all cities, including the great Carthage.History, however, learned nothing from the ruling class.No mitigation in relation to the slaves was not expected, and the government did not even think once "diversify" their dependence on their labor.
This subsequently led to the fact that the story ended sadly Phoenicians, and the once great state, weakened constant strife and internal turmoil, simply pilfered powerful neighbors.
Despite this, all contemporaries spoke of them with the deepest astonishment.Greeks and Romans wondered how the Phoenicians, a map of the world which has the most detailed at the time, being able to conquer a lot of peoples, have not been able to organize at least some semblance of the state."Dominating the world, they can not command at home," - so said about this people.Merchants desperate and adventurous travelers, they have become almost the first people in the history of mankind, who built his empire not with fire and sword, but by persuasion, cunning, intelligence and gold.
new elevation of Sidon
Thus, because of political squabbles, intrigues and rebellions of slaves its value in the end loses Tyre."Reins" immediately catches (the end of IX century BC) is fully recovered by the time of Sidon (now the city of Saida in Lebanon).In those years, this policy is to restore the lost value, he acquired a powerful fleet and army, and therefore could dictate their terms to the neighbors.
Historians believe that the ancient Phoenicians built it around the IV century BC.Already in the second millennium Sidon strong enough for the fierce fighting in the Tyre region.At the beginning of the first millennium BC, it is the citizens of the city-states took an active part in the Phoenician colonization wave that went through the entire western Mediterranean.However, he soon fell into a strong dependence on the efforts by the time of Tyre.
In 677 BC, the city was captured by the Assyrian troops, who destroyed it completely.However, within a decade it has been fully restored.Around the beginning of the VI century BC Sidon was absorbed by the Persian empire, which reigned Achaemenid dynasty.End of an era
soon and the other cities of the Phoenicians completely lose their independence.In the middle of the VI century BC the Assyrians restless increasingly began to appear under their walls.Despite the continuing economic power, all policies except the proud Tyre, Assyria quickly obey the authorities.
Do not forget that at the end of VII century BC, its former power began to fight for Egypt, but because a considerable number of former Phoenician cities are part of it.Finally, in those ages quickly become materet and develop the Persian Empire, which has put an end to the history of the state of sailors, traffickers and pioneers.
However, by the Phoenicians before the cases were not: they preserved their city government, and the trade has become even more favorable due to the protection and patronage of the Persians.The Phoenician fleet became part of the Persian fleet on the rights of the most powerful and respected unit last.
people this for a long time remind yourself.So, language and traditions of the Phoenicians maintained in many regions of the Mediterranean almost to the end of the Middle Ages.Only the brutal Arab conquests finally put an end to the developed ancient culture.
Over the past few decades, we made significant progress in the study of literature and language of the ancient people.Many new inscriptions are opened every year ... Archaeologists suggest that the deep study of the Phoenician heritage can reveal to us many secrets of the ancient world.