Basic theory of the origin of the state, from antiquity to the present day

Theories of the State - a hypothesis to explain the causes and circumstances of the state, its meaning and nature of the change.People for a long time thinking about what exactly is this phenomenon, which requires such a complex form of social organization.

reasons origin of the state called the most different, from the fantastic to reduce all to simple mental reactions.This difference of opinions is due, most likely, the authors of subjective assessments.
In modern science, there are the following basic theory of the origin of the state:

1. Divine (theological) theory.The power given to the governor of the higher powers, and there is no doubt.God created people and created a form of authority over them, so no matter how tyrannical it may be, is not entitled to her subjects to resist.The earliest theories arose from the mythological and religious beliefs.

2. The patriarchal theory.Developed by the ancient Greek scientist and philosopher Aristotle.It says that society - one big family, where the ruler (the father) takes care of his subjects (children) or punishing them for disobedience.

3. Contract theory.There was a 4-in.BC.e.In ancient Greece, the founders - the school of the Sophists and Epicureans.This theory denies the divine origin in the structure of the state and explains all the "coping mechanisms": in exchange for the satisfaction of their basic needs for protection, food and peaceful sleep people sacrificed their freedom in the power of rulers.

4. organic theory.Compare the structure of the state with the structure of a living organism, where citizens - the cells and depend on them, will function as a whole
system.Prominent representative of this movement - H. Spencer - thought that modern states - is a product of natural selection, which proved the viability of their predecessors.

5. The theory of violence.States are the result of wars and conquests, which defeated the nation becomes a slavery class and pobedivshaya- ruling.Basic theory of the origin of the state by force developed E.Dyuringom, L.Gumplovskim, K.Kautskim.

6. Psychological theory.He argues that the state system and the right to have arisen due to the peculiarities of the human psyche, its need for subordination.Founder - Freud - explained the need for this symbolically: once at the beginning of mankind's sons killed their forefather ill, overwhelming their sexual desires.Driven by a sense of guilt, they have created a God, and the rulers, and the order of the primal horde again recovered.By the way, the other main theory of the origin of the state did not deny the psychological component, but does not give it such a big deal.

7. The theory of racial inequality.Explains the emergence of public order that all races originally divided into slaves and slaveholders.This theory of the Nazis used to justify mass destruction, "second-class" people.

8. Marxist theory.Explains the appearance of state for economic reasons: the division of labor led to the emergence of classes and private property, and, as a consequence, there was a need to protect the accumulated wealth.

Having examined the basic theory of the origin of the state, it can be argued that each of them has the right to life, as it has for a considerable foundation and historical facts.