As soon as the snow melts, all the forests, meadows and along the road there is a lot of mushrooms.They grow from May to October, bringing joy to fans of "quiet hunting" in its diversity.Many fungi are useful and very nutritious.But everyone knows how dangerous it is to poison them.Therefore, only knowing what edible mushrooms, you can go to collect them.And it is desirable to teach you a knowledgeable person, because, depending on soil, weather conditions and the surrounding vegetation is the same fungus may look different.In addition, food did not suit all of them.
What are mushrooms
In our country grows about three thousand saprophytes.A food can be consumed only 200 of these.Anyone who wants to enjoy this delicious and nutritious product, should know what edible mushrooms.To do this you must first get acquainted with what they do are:
1. Edible - those who eat the food without a long treatment.They have a pleasant smell and a great nutritional value.
2. Conditionally edible mushrooms can be eaten, but before they are soaked or boiled for a long time.They may have an unpleasant odor and bitter taste disappears after soaking.Despite this, many of them are very popular, such as mushrooms.
3. inedible mushrooms - the ones that are not poisoned, but eating them can not because of the sharp smell, acrid taste, too small or unsuitable consistency.These include, for example, mitseny, pepper mushroom tinder fungus or a dog.
4. Poisonous mushrooms should not be eaten under any circumstances.They can cause poisoning or death.Death generally occurs due to liver toxicity and kidney.Some species exhibit their toxic quality only after many years, for example svinushki.
5. To include poisonous mushrooms as hallucinogens.They cause visual or auditory hallucinations, delusions.But these fungi can be non-hazardous.
Characteristics of edible mushrooms
- has a pleasant smell.
- they're delicious, and many of them are considered a delicacy.
- do not contain poisonous and toxic substances, suitable for consumption without long soaking or boiling.
- Possess high nutritional value: contains a lot of protein and mineral micronutrients.
- Many species are grown in gardens or on special plantations.
What are the edible mushrooms
Sometimes you can see the division of all saprophytes, edible, into four groups:
1. The most valuable mushrooms, has a pleasant taste and high nutritional value.These include white mushroom and milk mushroom real.
2. Less valuable for nutritional and taste qualities: aspen, boletus, butter mushrooms and champignons.
3. Even less valuable, require longer cooking, sometimes having acrid milky juice: mushrooms, Mokhovikov, russula, morels, mushrooms, chanterelles and others.
4. Little known species rarely collected umbrellas, lactifluus vellereus, oyster, raincoats and other.What
edible mushrooms harvested in the fall
When the summer heat subsides and the land becomes a raw mushroom comes the best time.From September until the first frost mushroom pickers go into the woods to look for them is not, namely to collect.In the first month of autumn can be found in almost all kinds of edible mushrooms, they are stronger this time, and are not affected by pests.In October and November, they become smaller.And at this time on the "quiet hunt" are those who know what edible mushrooms harvested in the fall.They can be divided into two groups:
1. Those that grow until the first frost.This white mushrooms, boletus, boletus, mushrooms, oyster mushrooms and russula.
2. Those who grow up even the appearance of frost, sometimes up to the December.These are mushrooms as blewits, mushrooms, greenfinch, chesnochnik and chanterelles.
How to gather mushrooms
On the "quiet hunt" should go only if you know what edible mushrooms.Photos do not always help them to see how they really look.There are a lot of doubles, inedible or even poisonous.Furthermore, the same fungus in different soils and in different seasons may look different.Therefore, it is advisable to go with a knowledgeable person who is well versed in what edible mushrooms.But even in the "quiet hunt" need to follow a few simple rules:
- not to pick mushrooms near roads, factories or in the city;
- never take a mushroom if you're not sure whether it is edible;
- do not get old, worm-eaten mushrooms;
- it is advisable not to collect them in rainy weather;
- the best knife to cut the mushrooms and add to basket of twigs;
- Do not remove or shoot down the fly agaric and grebes.
Even if you know which mushrooms edible for humans, you can not be sure poison for you, they are inedible for the inhabitants of the forest.
Can poison edible mushrooms
Saprophytes very volatile.One fungus can have several variants of shape, size, color.It should take only those that you are completely sure.But sometimes even the people who know what edible mushrooms, put in a basket unfamiliar or little known species in the hope that eventually they will move and carefully considered.It can not be done, because even a small piece of grebes, caught in a pan together with the fungus can cause severe poisoning.When else can you get poisoned edible mushrooms:
- in violation of the rules of their transportation, preparation and storage;
- in the use of over-ripe, wormy or diseased mushrooms;
- some saprophytes there any allergic reaction;such people, even if they know what edible mushrooms, collect them and can not be eaten;
- to collect mushrooms in the industrial areas near roads, cemeteries or in the fields treated with pesticides - because of the ability of fungi to absorb all the substances from the air and land in places even edible mushrooms can be poisonous.
Now you can find a lot of information about what are the edible mushrooms.But you need to choose a book obzatelno with color photos and detailed description of each mushroom and his counterparts.And even better than the first time to bring on the "quiet hunt" mushroom picker knows that you have suggested, what mushrooms can be taken so as not to poison.