Researchers from different countries have shown that living organisms inhabit the entire water mass of the oceans (MO).Scientists came to this conclusion even in the last century, and modern technique confirms the existence of deep-sea fish, crabs, crayfish, worms, at a depth of 11,000 m. Let us see how the bottom of the oceans studied French scientist Jacques Piccard, the contribution made by the British and Russian oceanographers.
water in the world - the object of constant attention of mankind
400-500 years ago, many travelers did not anticipate what the true size and depth of the oceans.Reopen the minds of many legends of Atlantis, plunged into the sea, myths about the wonderful country of El Dorado, where water sources are granted eternal youth.Swim Europeans to distant shores, which were abundant gold, jewels and spices have always been dangerous because of the rocky reefs and shoals in the way of large ships.But that did not stop to make a great geographical discoveries, to map the majority of seas and bays, to find a passage between the mainland and the island.
who explored the bottom of the oceans in the ancient times and the Middle Ages?Seafarers studied underwater topography ways available to them, maps and globes.Scientists estimate that the surface of the water on our planet is three times the land area (361 km2 and 149 million respectively).Oceans in all periods of history influenced the development of trade, fishing and traveling.The role of MoD in shaping climate and weather on land, providing the population with food.
origin of Oceanology (oceanography)
bottom of the oceans examined Ferdinand Magellan during his voyage around the world;paid attention soundings Christopher Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci.But they were not scientists, and merchants and sailors.In the XIX-XX centuries it has increased the role of science in the study of the ocean.Thanks to the achievements of researchers have been laid safe waterways created maps of currents, salinity and temperature, underwater and subglacial relief.
At the same time the development of shipping had a significant impact on the organization and operation of scientific expeditions.This happened with the voyages of the Russian courts, which went round the world, came to the shores of Antarctica.It was organized to study the coast and the depth of the northern and Far Eastern seas.
who explored the bottom of the oceans
success voyages contributed to the accumulation of knowledge about the Ministry of Defense.It was gradually becoming one of the geographical sciences - oceanography.Among its founders - Boris Varenius Dutch and Russian Yuri Shokalsky.A significant contribution to this process was made by Russian explorers and military.The bottom of the oceans explored one of the first Italian L. Marsilio.
At the beginning of the XIX century Russian scientists E. Lenz and E. Parrot invented depth gauge.In the middle of the same century American George. M. Brooke created a lot separates the cargo to collect soil samples.These achievements have successfully used the participants oceanographic expedition on the British ship "Challenger".Working under the auspices of the British Royal Society, scientists in the years 1872-1876 gathered a rich collection of marine plants and animals, measuring the depth of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.Among the prominent scholars of the time necessary to carry Russian oceanographer Makarov, who studied the Black and Mediterranean seas.
Measurements in the ocean helped to create at the turn of the XX century almost full depth map.About 100 years ago to replace the rope lots came the sound waves and devices - echo sounders.The device emits a signal that is reflected from the bottom and is captured.Knowing the time and the speed of sound in water is obtained by calculation of the distance which must be divided in half.This depth will be in the area of measurement.
Discovery at the bottom of Defense
Sounders opened to researchers of the oceans opportunities.The last decades of the XIX century and the years after World War II were marked by growing interest in the biology of Defense.Scientists have collected evidence for the existence of life not only in the surface layer of water, but also at depth.In the second half of the XX century the world circled pictures in which people have seen the bottom of the oceans.Photo deepwater organisms caught the imagination of ordinary people.For creatures that live in complete darkness at a temperature of about 2-3 ° C, have a luminous and electric organs.
Scientists have mapped the extended mid-ocean ridges, the valley, the individual mountain.The easiest way was to explore the continental shelf and slope, but the true pioneers lured depth.At the end of the XIX century the expedition "Challenger" was discovered and mapped the deepest place in the Ministry of Defense in the area of the Mariana Islands in the northwest Pacific Ocean.These chutes have resulted from the collision of powerful continental platforms with thin oceanic plates.On the continents deep depressions in the ocean meet the young mountain ranges.
object of study - the bottom of the oceans
investigated the Mariana Trench Swiss oceanographer Jacques Piccard, together with a US citizen Don Walsh.For deep dives, scientists have used the machine "Trieste".There was an important event January 23, 1960.Prior to that, experimental dives was a famous French director and naturalist Jacques Cousteau, who later filmed documentaries about life on the ocean floor.
Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh together in the "Trieste" plunged into "the abyss Challenger" in the south-west of the Mariana Trench.The depth here is 10 911-11 030 m below the MoD.Duration descent bathyscaphe was about 5 hours, the researchers of the deepest trough of the world spent on its bottom 20 minutes, reinforced strength and chocolate began to rise, which lasted more than 3 hours.
Studies have shown that a variety of species of deep-sea animals compete with the wealth of the fauna of tropical coral reefs.Marine benthic organisms are adapted to their environment, while at the bottom of valleys dark and cold.
main directions of modern research MO
second half of the XX century marked the beginning of the international phase of the study of the oceans.It was organized sailing research vessels, deep-sea drilling to collect soil samples.At the end of the last century, scientists have paid more attention to the interaction of MO with the mainland, the impact on the climate.
Since then, as the bottom of the oceans investigated Jacques Piccard, took a long time.Oceanographic research is ongoing, they reveal the MoD in solitary volcanoes, fault zones and seismic activity.As a result of the collision of oceanic and continental plates, volcanic eruptions occur spontaneous natural phenomena, killed hundreds of thousands of people are immersed in the depths of the waters of the island, there are huge waves - a tsunami.Possess destructive power of typhoons that originate over the oceans, and came down on the coast.Study and timely warning of the population of these hazards - one of the problems of modern oceanography.
impressive natural resources MO allow humanity to rely on more comfortable existence for hundreds of years.The waters of the oceans has long been not just plow fishing, freight, passenger and military vessels.Exploration and research ships, production platforms steel elements, without which it is difficult to imagine the boundless seas.