adverb is an evolving part of speech.Linguists who study the Old Russian language, claim that in ancient writings present adverbs.Even then, they were scheduled first group and subgroup according to the methods of education and morphological values.
adverbs in sentences often perform the role of syntactic circumstances.According lexical meaning identified two groups: adverbial and attributive adverbs level.
These adverbs represent quantitative and qualitative features of the action, condition and other characteristics.Bits dialects are divided into three subgroups:
- quantitative adverbs.Indicates the degree of the quality and extent of the action, answer the question: to what extent?how?(examples - a little, twice, a little bit, the full, till dark, lots, almost).
- qualitative adverbs.Formed from qualitative adjectives that define the quality or characteristic of the subject, answer the question how?(examples - poorly, modestly, fast, deep, slow)
- Image and extent of the action.Adverb describes how to perform any act answers the questions: How?as?(examples - pieces, blind, on the sly, to the touch)
Adverbial level adverbs describe the target, time, causality, and spatial relationships.Divided into 4 groups:
- Adverbs place.Emphasize the place of action, answer the questions: where?where?where?(examples - left, right, top, here everywhere there;).
- Adverbs of time.Indicate the time of the action, answer the question: Since when?until when?when?(example - today, yesterday, all the time, sometimes every day, summer, spring, still).
- Adverbs goal.Indicate the purpose of the action, that is why this action is performed, answer the question: to what end?what for?(examples - show, unfortunately, inadvertently, accidentally, intentionally, deliberately).
- Adverbs reasons.State the reasons for which the action takes place, answer the question: why?(examples - because, spur of the moment, out of malice, stupidity, nothing, blindly).
Adverbs correlated with other independent parts of speech - adjectives, nouns, verbs, pronouns, numerals and gerunds.
Education adverbs occur in several ways:
- merger with prepositions independent part of speech while rethinking case forms and turn it into a number of separate words.
- repetition of words by adding prefixes, prepositions (eg, for) in the form of adverbs (for example - a dry-dry).The repetition of the same words in different case forms (examples - white-white, black-black).It is also used repetition of words synonymous with value (examples - tightly, in good time).
- transition from one to another part of speech.Thus, widespread rethinking of gerunds by the loss of species and time values (examples - lying down, standing up, reluctantly, immediately).
- Education adverbs by adding suffixes to the base of the adjective and the present participle (examples - melodious, well, threatening, friendly).Also, this method is applied to the cardinal number (once, twice).
- suffix-prefixing method.Adverbs are formed by pronouns and adjectives with two suffixes -emu- and -omu-.Therefore also added the prefix (for example - the old, in spring, in a new way, in an amicable way, in English).
- also adverbs can be formed by fixed expressions, which are used in the form of circumstances (for example - at hand, slipshod, upside down, before dawn, than light, in haste).
It - main ways of formation of adverbs.
One of the most difficult sections are spelling rules that govern the various bits of adverbs.However, writing the majority of them should be easy to remember.
Adverbs perform one of the important functions of speech: they complement and clarify the basis for grammatical words spoken or written phrase.
By morphological features of this part of the speech, linguists refer immutability adverbs, t. E. The absence of some form of change of number and case, and the presence of some derivational suffixes.