Never forget that the human being is a potential victim of ticks that transmit most dangerous viruses, among which the first place is tick-borne encephalitis.Blood-sucking mites live almost everywhere.They can lie in wait for their prey in the woods, in the fields, pastures, as well as in areas where animals are kept.Despite the diversity of species, the biggest threat to humans is the tick carries the pasture, which clings to the body quietly and painlessly.As a result, people may not even be aware of the bite.
Basics ethology of pasture ticks
active type of attack pasture ticks allows them to quickly detect potential food or as little time to be out of the shelters.Guided by the sun, they are visually determine the shortest path to the food and produce an attack.
This pasture mites (dermacentor marginatus), living in damp and cool conditions, rarely attack openly.Most often they are satisfied with the kind of an ambush on the plants waiting for the victim to detect that they use coming from any living creature chemical signals.However, it should be noted that the tick pasture can not recognize whether the source of the smell is suitable for power, and reacts even to non-specific odors.Production of food in these conditions is associated with active movements in places where ticks could smell emanating from humans and animals.
Sex differences pasture ticks
Pasture tick, the size of which in the fasted state seldom exceed 6 mm, can grow up to 2 cm. In this case, to distinguish it from other species can be not only a unique size, but also in appearance.
upper part of the body they cover tight dorsal shield by which we can determine the sex of the individual.In males it covers the entire upper body, and the females and the larvae in all stages of development - just front.In addition, the females suck several times more blood than the weight of their own body, causing them to swell so that begin to resemble a large bean, male same for normal life requires much smaller volumes of blood.It is remarkable that females are more often carriers of serious diseases, contributing to the emergence and maintenance of natural foci of occurrence of viral infections.
Given the large number of species, man, going on nature, you must be sure to consider the security measures and the seriousness of the consequences that may result from the tick on the body.Photos presented below gives an indication of the volume of blood that you need to use a female to increase from a few millimeters to a similar size.
Once the female is completely filled, it falls down to the ground and pick up a suitable shelter begins to lay eggs.This fertilization of females occurs in the period of saturation in the body of the host.Normally masonry produced in burrows, sand, fallen leaves or in rooms where the livestock.This place is ideal not only for its temperature characteristics, but also allows souped mites get quick access to food, as the larvae are born very hungry.
is noteworthy that the newly formed larva at birth has no genitals, and only a few days of continuous power, after at individuals happen moult, it is transformed into a nymph, which in size is very similar toadult mite.
Pasture tick life cycle is characterized by unique features and is quite complex, involves several stages of transformation from larva to adult.On the formation of a full it needs a minimum amount of time.The speed of development is directly dependent on climatic conditions and timely larva finding a permanent source of food for the period.The larva feeds for about three days, after which she observed first molt, after which she transformed into a nymph.
Under pasture tick nymphs remain for about a week, after which comes the next molt, which resulted in the transformation of individuals into the imago, and the cycle of pasture mite is completed.
most common types
Despite the fact that the mites are found almost everywhere and has a large number of different species, the most widely used:
- Ixodes persulcatus - quite aggressive to man kind.The most active mites in this group are in the 2-3-th year of life.It lives almost everywhere and is a serious threat.
- Ixodes ricinus - tick, no more than 3 mm in size.In the initial stage of development they are firmly fixed on small rodents and birds, as well as the growing move in large and medium cattle.In that case, if the larvae are born in the wild, as the main food sources they use hares and hedgehogs, which are entrenched in the mites will feed on all stages of development.The most widespread view was that in America, Western Europe and Russia.
- Dermacentor marginatus.To distinguish this type of ticks from the rest of quite simple, you need to carefully examine the dorsal shield individuals.His side of the dark brown color decorated with bright pictures.Adult stage at dermacentor marginatus comes at the end of March, allowing them to parasitize more actively before the final warming and awakening of most species of ticks.Most often they can be found in the meadows and in the bush, with the result that they are more likely other species are used as the main food source of human blood, attacking the people both during outdoor recreation, and urban environments.
- Dermacentor pictus.Pliers of this type are capable of absorbing large amounts of blood, which in the future will lead not only to a decline in strength, but also to anemia.
The data types can be divided into three categories:
- mites, which are in any stage of development, lives on the same host.
- mites that while the initial host, simultaneously picks himself a new food source.
- ticks, randomly chooses his hosts for their entire life.
Effect of pasture ticks on human
- If the extraction of the body is punctured skin mite, into the human body can penetrate a variety of pathogens of viral diseases.
- If time does not treat the bite, saliva, which produces the pasture mite, may cause a serious allergic reaction, which in the future is capable of causing fever and a lot of nerve diseases.
- can carry a wide variety of viruses, which are transmitted from the pasture ticks inherited from female larvae.
The main preventive measures advised to wear clothes on nature, completely covering the exposed areas of the body.In addition, after a stay in the woods or in the field is required conduct routine inspections, which resulted in a mite found on the body (photo similar case presented below) gently removed with the proboscis.Try not to damage its integrity.In the case if it is broken during the extraction process, the body may get a viral infection.It must be remembered that if the pasture mite infects farm animals, with their milk, not specially treated, the infection can be transmitted to humans.
This certainly keep in mind that even if you believe that the tick has been removed pasture without disrupting its integrity, be sure to pass preventive medical examination that will help early detection and treatment may proceed to a viral infection.