history of naval forces around the world is full of mysteries.Such a complex machine, like a warship full of equipment, weapons and vehicles, improper handling that could lead to the loss of the vessel.But that's not all explained.Accident often so fleeting and scale that tell about all its circumstances, there is no one.Fragments of a heap of twisted metal, usually lying on the bottom, so the investigation and clarification of the reasons is extremely difficult.So it was with the Japanese ship "Fuso", "Congo", "Mutsu", "Yamato" American dreadnoughts "Arizona", the Italian cruiser "Roma" Soviet "Marat" English "Barham" and "Hood".In the postwar period martyrology he added "Novorossiysk".The death of the battleship "Empress Maria" in October 1916 can be attributed to quite difficult to explain historical facts.
Series best battleships
Contrary to popular belief, the origin of which explained the specific approach of the Soviet party leaders to domestic pre-revolutionary history, the Russian Empire was not a backward country.The discoveries of our scientists forever in the treasury of world science.Russian electrical engineers have developed the world's first three-phase power supply system, invented an induction motor, and wireless communications.All these achievements have been applied in the design of new ships of the Imperial Navy, launched into a series in 1911.There were three: the battleship "Empress Maria" became the first of them."Empress Catherine the Great" and "The Emperor Alexander III» in general repeated his designs, although, as is often the case, were constructed taking into account arising during the production process of new ideas.In the spring of 1914 head unit was launched.It happened at an opportune moment.The World War, which began with the seemingly sudden shots thundered in Sarajevo, a surprise really was not.Battleships of the "Empress Maria" substantially aligned balance of power on the alleged maritime theater of military operations.Russian Navy Tsushima healed wounds.
Series ships received names of royal personages of the Russian State.Interestingly, only battleship "Empress Maria" Black Sea Fleet has been named in honor of a living, live the moment to the widow of Alexander III, nee Danish Princess Louise Sophia Frederika Dagmar, which has become a real Russian patriot, by the way, despite his foreign origin.However, this has already happened, it is enough to recall the Catherine the Great, whose name got another battleship of the same type.Without a doubt, this woman deserves this honor, besides, she was the mother of Nicholas II.Its role in Russian history is great, and the strength of character, kindness and righteousness life successfully competed with external beauty.
tragic fate of Maria Feodorovna, she died at her home in Denmark (1928), while staying in exile and personifying him a share of the Russian, who had a chance to eat the bitter bread of foreign land, "leaving no crusts."And before she lost her dear and loved ones: two sons, a daughter, four granddaughters and a grandson.
ship battleship "Empress Maria" was the ship in all respects eminent.He walked rapidly, accelerating almost 24 knots (40 km / h) when loading 2 thousand. Tons of coal and 600 tons of fuel oil had autonomy in eight days, the team consisted of 1 260 sailors and officers.Power plant - turbine type, it consisted of two machines of 10 000 liters.from.
Battleships - a special type of naval equipment, they have a high level of artillery weapons.Four turrets were equipped with three 12-inch guns (made famous Obukhov factory) each.In addition to the main battery, and support was presented, in the amount of 32 pieces.These guns have different purposes, among them were anti-aircraft, indicating that the ability of Russian engineers think in perspective and take into account the growing threat of an air attack.There was another design feature that distinguishes the battleship "Empress Maria".Drawings of superstructures were made to account for any increase in the sector of fire, so the power salvo little dependent on the angle of the target relative to the rate.
outputs torpedo tubes located below the waterline, it was a revolutionary breakthrough at the time.Shingles body armor layer thickness of 250 mm, it has been protected and deck.A special word deserves electrical supply system of the ship.The battleship "Empress Maria" energizes the six dynamos (now referred to as generators).All heavy mechanisms rotating electric motor, in particular, each artillery tower were 22 pieces.
This ship could fulfill combat tasks even in our time.
how to fight the battleship
autumn of 1915 the intensity of sea battles in the Black Sea peaked.Turkey, an ally of Austria-Hungary, showed regional activity, not less aggressive behaved German submarine fleet.In response, the Black Sea Fleet under artillery bombardment of the ports of the northern coast of the Ottoman - Eregli, Kilimli, Zunguldak and goats.On the flagship battleship, "Mary", managed Naval Operations Admiral Kolchak.On account of all the new commands appear sunk enemy ships.German cruiser "Breslau" to the rescue the Turkish fleet in February, failed to fulfill the task and barely broke away from the Russian battleship, received multiple injuries.For the entire 1916, another German raider, "Gabin" only three ventured to go to the Black Sea basin from the Bosphorus Strait, but it briefly and unsuccessfully.From his last trip to the bay of Sevastopol battleship "Empress Maria" returned 6 October 1916.
victims and survivors
Unlike many other maritime disasters, in that most of the teams managed to survive.From 1260 members of the crew died immediately according to various sources from 152 to 216 people.The number of wounded and was burnt by a hundred to 232 people.Although to provide urgent medical care, died in hospitals has one hundred and fifty sailors.Thus, the loss of the battleship "Empress Maria" has caused the death of three hundred and fifty people (maximum score), representing approximately 28% of the whole team.Victims could be much larger, but, fortunately, almost all of the sailors, who were not carrying Watchkeeping, participated in the prayer service that took place on the aft deck.As they say, God save.
about what happened on the battleship in the early morning on October 7 told surviving members of the crew.In a sense, the witness can be called all Sevastopol, awakened by a terrible crash.People who saw the whole picture of accident crash from the shore and other ships of the Black Sea Fleet, argue that the first explosion ripped seats from the foremast, the front pipe and the conning tower.But the main reason for the struggle for life was useless, was the destruction of the body, expressed in board breaking below the waterline, then the sea water began to flow into the compartments.Fire, meanwhile, continued.Within minutes, the ship arrived commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Kolchak, to lead the rescue, firefighters arrived, boats and tugs, but it was impossible to do anything.Less than an hour later detonated ammunition in the cellar of the nose turret, was heard several explosions, the battleship received a negative buoyancy, capsizing rolled over and sank.
Mariners throughout the catastrophe acted in accordance with the Charter and fulfill the responsibilities as ordered him staffing.At 7:20 of the fourth casemate sailors who were on duty noticed a strange hissing sound that emanated from behind the partition cellar neighboring bow tower.They immediately reported to your supervisor about what is happening, time to roll out the fire hoses and delivers water.It took only two minutes.After a change of watch sailors washed at this time to rest, they were all burned Hellfire explosion.Power supply was disrupted, the lights went out.Explosions continued (there thundered 25), detonated the shells of 130 mm caliber.Meanwhile, on the orders of a senior mechanical engineer Warrant Officer Ignatiev tried to run the fire pump.He did not succeed, the brave sailor was killed.Trying to flood the cellars of the second tower of the bow to create a water barrier also proved unsuccessful, it just was not enough time.Realizing that not everyone be saved, the chiefs gave the command to leave the sailors, while they themselves were to die, trying to do his duty.After the lifting of the ship were found and interred the remains of the heroes ...
version Home: accident
People tend to look for clues around the inexplicable.The mysterious circumstances, the more difficult and confusing, they are usually treated.Therefore, the official version of the Commission of Inquiry that the explosion on the flagship of the Black Sea Fleet took place due to the self-ignition of essential gunpowder fumes, many caused disappointment.However, most likely because it was.Shells for a long time with the cap is in the barrel, especially when the battleship was hunting for "Gabin" and this could trigger a detonation.But there is another version, according to which the mysterious death of the battleship "Empress Maria" there was no accident.
German spies in favor of "sabotage" hypothesis also say some of the circumstances.The ship carried out repairs, access control was weak, and that would put a stop to scout mikrovzryvatel cellar, similar to what was found in the Italian Dreadnought "Leonardo da Vinci" in the summer of 1915?Moreover, many hatches were not locked.Another fact speaks at first glance to spy sabotage: in 1933 by the NKVD was defused residency German intelligence led some Werman.According to the prisoner, he was recruited before the revolution.And interest in the achievements of Russian military electronics, including schemes "Empress Maria".Attention to this when security officers are not given.Was Verman spy is unknown, then the people admitted to anything.
ship was cut for scrap in 1926.There was only the memory of what was the battleship "Empress Maria".Model it is in the Museum of Nakhimov naval commander at home - in the Smolensk region.Another skillfully executed layout - on a large scale - decorates exposure Nicholas History Museum of shipbuilding and fleet.