Today it is difficult to imagine how the huge popularity enjoyed in the first decades of the Soviet image of legendary Russian navy lieutenant PPSchmidt.His biographers knew all Soviet children wanted to be like the legendary revolutionary, and the revolt of the crew of the cruiser "Ochakov" was perceived as a glorious page in the history of the revolutionary triumph, and a harbinger of the people's power.
Why forgotten rebellious lieutenant
In an era of mature socialism of the rebellious officer, who led sailors revolt, also seems to be not forgotten, but rarely remembered.Especially after the other "revolutionary", the captain of the third rank Sablin had almost led the Soviet large antisubmarine ship "Watchdog" in Sweden (1975), the leadership of the Soviet Union advancing political demands.The similarity of the circumstances of the two rebellions, separated by a time interval of seventy, in a sense, cast a shadow on Lieutenant Schmidt.Most known are the events in the "Potemkin".
Two similar uprising
pupils in memory of late socialist pores mixed two episodes that took place in the Russian navy in the midst of the Russian-Japanese war.On the battleship "Prince Potemkin Tauride" dissatisfaction sailors bad meal turned into a riot, followed by violence and victims.The officers were drowned in the sea and sacrificed in all ways, then began artillery shots in Odessa.The ship had gone to Romania, where he was interned and the team - disbanded.
Something similar has happened in Sevastopol, and not only on the "Ochakovo", but on the other ships of the Black Sea Fleet.The difference was that, of all the rebels in the raid in the history of Odessa came only sailor Vakulenchuk killed an officer while trying to quell a rebellion.The revolt on the cruiser "Ochakov" was headed by an officer, a representative of the naval elite tsarist Russia.He remembered spectacular and concise signaling messages and telegrams to the Emperor.And the number of victims this time were much greater.
Russia - the country is enormous.On its territory of neighboring States have always hankered after, wanting to grab a little bit in their favor.Far threat came from Japan.In 1904, the intention to expand the territorial possession escalated into full-scale hostilities.By that Russia is ready, but the country's leadership led re not fast enough.Nevertheless, the water within a few years were launched powerful cruisers recent projects.
Series I rank the ships included "Heroes", "Oleg" and "Cahul".Newest protected cruisers of the project was "Ochakov".These ships were speedboat had powerful artillery armament and to meet all the requirements of naval science at the time.The crew of each of them was about 565 sailors.Cruisers were to defend the coast of the Fatherland in different seas surrounding the empire.
war with Japan
war with Japan was held so poorly.The reasons for this were several - from poorly trained troops to simple bad luck, expressed in accidental loss of Admiral Makarov on the roads of Port Arthur.There was a Japanese intelligence and activity, manifested in full undermining the defense power of Russian sentiments and inciting unrest.Of course, one can argue that the foreign intelligence agency, organized a revolt on the cruiser "Ochakov".Date November 13 marked the day when the ship left the officers, urged disobedience to this command and the fear of being killed.Without an analysis of previous events is impossible to understand the circumstances of the riot.
it all began
It all started back in October, during the All-Russian political strike.By organizing this political action Japanese intelligence, of course, the attitude is, though not decisive.The unrest took place, including in the Crimea.Railroad strike, employees of publishing houses, banks and many other businesses.Manifesto of October 17, the king did not chastened fighters for civil liberties, on the contrary, they took the document as a sign of weakness.Lieutenant Schmidt spoke at the rally.In the dispersal of demonstrations killed eight people, including a lieutenant of the other instigators of the riots was arrested, but already 19 October Schmidt attended a meeting of the City Council as a delegate from the people.At this point, power in Sevastopol almost went to the rebels, the order controlled by a people's militia, not a legitimate police.Later, Schmidt will speak at the funeral of the victims of crackdown and deliver a fiery speech.He was immediately re-arrested and kept until 14 November on the battleship "Three Saints" under the guise of official embezzlement.He was released when the uprising on the cruiser "Ochakov" and several other ships of the Black Sea Fleet has already occurred.
Schmidt Peter Schmidt lived only 38 years, but his fate was so generously filled with various events, to describe it would take a book, perhaps not one.The character of rebellious lieutenant had a complex and its actions could be called controversial, if they do not guessed a certain logic.Since childhood, Peter was suffering from a mental illness that leaves him all his life - kleptomania.Revealed she was a child, in the junior preparatory class of the Naval School, the boy began to steal small things from fellow students.After graduation, everyone who knew the young man pointed his extremely bad temper and irritability, called hypertrophic proudly.While serving in the Navy, he somehow managed to marry a prostitute Dominica Pavlova, which introduced him to Michael Stavrakis (by the way, it was he who in 1906 will command execution Schmidt).Only the origin of glorious naval family not once, not twice saved the young man from the expulsion of the fleet.
For all its faults officer have plenty of abilities to the exact sciences, owned a good navigation and other marine wisdom, he loved to play the cello.After gaining the rank of Midshipman officer Peter Schmidt got leave - during this period he worked in a factory of agricultural equipment.Later it gave him reason to consider himself as a man who knows the life of the common people.When the opportunity to become famous, he led a revolt on the cruiser "Ochakov" - in 1905 became its sidereal time.
official Soviet historiography claimed that the events of 1905 were a serious political-economic basis, but if it were not a decisive one officer, they would not be, at least in Sevastopol.In fact, the revolt on the cruiser "Ochakov" to prepare and implement not Schmidt and strike group, consisting of the underground Bolshevik NG Antonenko, SP privateers and AI Gladkov.They obviously needed someone enjoys a certain prestige and wearing naval uniform.In the eloquent officer noticed most of all, in the previous days of the revolt.So Schmidt became a living "banner."This role he obviously liked.
As fleet commanded Schmidt
Rise of the cruiser "Ochakov" occurred on November 13 and the 14 of November the ship arrived freed from the dungeons lieutenant, already wearing the captain's insignia of rank.There is an explanation: in accordance with the table of ranks next after the lieutenant was exactly the title, and at retirement, it is automatically assigned.However, the mere fact that a fighter against the autocracy so kind to the ranks and grades, says a lot.Who arrived on the ship officer immediately ordered otsemaforit its entry into the post of commander of the whole fleet, and to give the Emperor a telegram demanding political reforms.In addition, he visited several military units and successfully persuaded the crews to support the rebels.
In that naval command immediately ordered the immediate and ruthless suppression of the rebellion, was not anything surprising.But these events have another underlying reason that allows them to take a little differently.Renowned historian Anatoly Grigoryev of the uprising on "Ochakovo" wrote several articles from which it becomes clear at the time the extraordinary rigidity of the action.The fact that the rebel ships almost immediately opened heavy fire, which continued after the combat mission was almost complete, and the resistance is suppressed.Besides, the cruiser could not give full resistance, as the work on it has not yet been completed - he was in the stage of completion, and did not have weapons, as, of course, everyone knew.
version is this: in contrast to the previously launched on ships series "Hercules", the Russian cruiser "Ochakov" was built with numerous violations of the technology and the process of construction was accompanied by abuses of authority, expressed in normal embezzlement.Persons involved in this criminal fraud, tried to cover their tracks.When the uprising began on the cruiser "Ochakov", they took it as a lucky chance to get rid of the evidence, which is the ill-fated ship.The result has been many casualties and severe damage to the ship.Sink it and failed - even stealing, built during the reign of the conscience.
Today we can with high probability to see how it was.The revolt on the cruiser "Ochakov", like many other cases of mass disobedience in the army and navy, was the result of subversive activities of the Social Democratic Party, strove in every way to weaken the Tsarist Russia even at the cost of military defeats.Problems in the armed forces, of course, they were.Furthermore, they have to be always and in any country.If enough high-quality food is the cause of rebellion (and allowances of seafarers as a whole has always been very good, even by today's standards), the country's leaders should think hard and to take urgent and stringent measures to prevent similar incidents in the future.Although death sentences instigators (Schmidt, smooth, and Antonenko Chastnik were shot on Berezan), serious conclusions were made.There have been many other tragic events, called the first Russian revolution, part of which was a revolt on the cruiser "Ochakov".Date "1905" then all painted in blood red.