Irkutsk HPP is the first and largest hydroelectric plant, built on the Angara.It initiated the formation of the whole energy complex.Difficulties in its construction helped to acquire a truly invaluable experience.
I must say that the natural resources of Siberia (in particular, the area where flowing Angara) was always interested researchers pre-revolutionary Russia.However, carried out at the time were primarily minerals.
Serious research on hydropower have been started only in 1924-1925.For the first time about the importance of the country's total reserves held by the Angara said the engineer VMMalyshev.Just at this time, the revision was made electrification plan.It was during the First Five-Year Plan was planned to complete work on the study of the capacity of the river in order to organize the largest in Eastern Siberia Power and framework that is essential for rapidly growing production.
Research and design work on the study
Siberian lands near Angara has been allocated about 20 million rubles.That's when the problem began, and the national economic.But despite the allotted appropriations comprehensive studies on the river have been held only since 1930 At the same time, and set up a special institution called the Office for the Study of the Angarsk problem.A year later it was renamed the Bureau of the Angara River, which became part of the trust "Hydroenergoproject."
team of researchers, led Professor Malyshev, in 1935 completed the first stage of works on the river.The result was a diagram of operation of its upper portion, the Irkutsk hydro project and a plan of the whole complex of businesses that will consume that energy.A year later, all the materials submitted by a group of Malyshev were considered representatives of the USSR State Planning Committee.As a result, the Commission issued a decision on the construction on the Angara River just six hydroelectric power stations, which will be a continuous cascade, the first in the list was the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station (photo).
In 1948, the hydroelectric power fell into the title list of trust "Hydroenergoproject» in the design and survey works.The chief engineer of the construction became Mr. Sukhanov, and architects - V. Letavin and PM Stalin.In 1949, the hydroelectric project is approved, and at the beginning of next year, the Soviet government made a final decision on the construction of the first hydroelectric power station of the Irkutsk region.
a month in place of the future dam builders arrived.For its construction specially organized separate construction management called "Angaragesstroy."In accordance with the project to build a hydroelectric had both temporary and auxiliary facilities, as well as enterprises, the volume of which was to reach 312 thousand. M³.
In addition, according to the plan, construction personnel needed to provide a living area of 90 thousand. Sqm, household buildings and cultural orientation in the amount of 135 ths. M³.All these buildings were in need of sewer and water main length of 63 km.Do not forget about railways and roads.
Head "Angaragesstroya" appointed AE Bochkin and chief engineer - SN Moiseev.Under the guidance of an experienced and competent Hidrotechnika AA Melnikonisa Irkutsk dam was constructed.HPP became the all-union construction site.These graduates come from all over the country.They actively participated in the organization of construction, so its completion, many of them have become quite large coordinators.
difficulties in the construction
Irkutsk hydroelectric station, the construction of which was given very hard, the first part of the cascade of six hydroelectric power plants.The fact that up to her to carry out such projects have not yet accounted for.Therefore, during construction there were many difficulties.It was necessary to build a dam of sand and gravel, whose length is 2.5 km and combined with it the building of the hydroelectric power station, which is a reinforced concrete building in the length of 240 m. It was necessary to collect eight units with a total capacity of 660 thous. KW.
Irkutsk hydroelectric power station, consisting of a dam, which was built of sand and gravel, and combined with its buildings, was designed for the first time.In addition, such large embankments has not been in the world.It is worth mentioning that the hydroelectric power station were built in a seismically hazardous area (up to 8 on the Richter scale), and the ideal building material in such difficult conditions is just sand and gravel.At the time of a possible earthquake, they should be set in motion and sealed.
As it turns out, the crystal clear water of the Angara River required a special quality concrete.In the early summer of 1954 at the base of the future powerhouse it was laid a commemorative plate.It was she who was the beginning of concrete placement.Besides the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station, whose construction was already difficult, was erected on the icy river with a fairly fast-flowing and extremely harsh climatic conditions.
At the beginning of 1953 on the Angara suddenly began flooding, which has become almost the most difficult test for hydrobuilders.The fact that on the eve of the new year, severe frost, the river covered with ice, but strong currents broke it, and huge chunks flew downwards, creating congestion.Soon the water began to rise rapidly and overflow over the dam.As a result, the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station, the construction of the story which knows so many difficulties, was under the threat of flooding.
for pumping water used all available pumps.If only one of them at the moment is out of order, it would have led to a complete flooding.Motorists and mechanics almost three days did not leave the pit, and at this time the workers stepped up jumpers.A continuous stream of trucks loaded with gravel, has hardly passed on partially flooded roads.Builders in the icy rock clothes leveled and filled it with water, creating an impermeable barrier.In the end, the heroic efforts of the people have been able to defend the pit and avoid huge losses.
At the beginning of July 1956 blocked the Angara River and its water was sent through another finish building powerhouse.December 29 the same year, after 82 months from the start of construction of one of its units was connected to the network.After 2 days, and a second current returned.In 1958, it was put into operation two of the unit.After that, the Irkutsk hydroelectric power station started working at full capacity.
must say that hydroelectric reservoir filled 7 years.During this period of time backwater from the dam came to Baikal and, therefore, its level increased by 1.4 m. Now the valley of the river Angara became Baikal bay and the great lake has become a major part of the regulatory Irkutsk reservoir.
Irkutsk hydroelectric power station, which has a history for more than half a century, is a part of the united system of central Siberia.For its construction and operation of the flood had 138 thousand. Hectares of land on which previously was about 200 settlements, as well as sections of roads and railways.About 17 thousand. People were moved to other areas.Currently Irkutsk hydropower plant generates electricity, the price of which is considered to be the lowest in Russia.