The national system of payment cards of the Russian Federation was established on the basis of Federal Law № 112 of May 5, 2014.The purpose of its formation serves to ensure the availability, effectiveness and continuity of the provision of services relating to the transfer of funds.Consider further how the national system of payment cards of the Russian Federation.
Establishment of the National payment system began in 1990.In 1992, inter-bank settlements have been held with the elements of STB Card.By 1993, the payment system has been formed "Union Card".By 1999 she joined 457 banking organizations and their divisions.Buyers released more than 3 000 000 payment cards.In late 1993, it was formed "Golden Crown".By 2014, this payment system will bring together around 87 banks to release more of 8 million cards.In October 1994, the Coordination Committee was formed.The initiative for its establishment belonged to the Moscow GTU Bank of Russia.The Committee was formed primarily for the timely identification of problems in the functioning of interbank settlements.This would provide an effective impact on the elimination of difficulties, to provide exchanges with the banking institutions regarding information exchange.As one of the most important activities of the Committee advocated the formation and improvement of the system of plastic cards in Moscow.
analyzing international experience, Moscow State Technical University came to the conclusion that the Russian Federation has a unique opportunity to use international practice, especially France, to go on a shorter route.It was necessary to unite the efforts of banking organizations.Moscow State Technical University has seen its role in this process in the coordination of the participants in the formation of a unified card system in Moscow.However, most of the largest banking organizations has a network of branches located in various regions of the Russian Federation.When combined payment system would acquire nationwide.
Taking into account the current situation, the Moscow State Technical University has moved the center of his activities in the executive body of the Bank of Russia.The Working Group consisted of more than twenty professionals.In addition to direct Bank of Russia they represented Moscow State Technical University, the Association of domestic banking institutions.Among the members of the Working Group were the largest and reunification.These include, in particular, the Savings Bank, "Agroprom", "Inkom" SBS-Agro "and others. The Working Group operates, and Fed. Agency FAPSI. The executive body in quantitative terms mainly were representatives of credit card companies.
Areas Working Group
efforts Authority focused on the following objectives:
- Development of the project documentation of the Bank of Russia, which provides circulation and use of plastic elements to perform monetary transactions in the Russian Federation.
- Development of the National Payment System.
The project documentation has been developed and sent to the management of the Bank of Russia. Later (after the termination of the activities of the Working Group), it has been finalized and approved. This document was the first act by which regulate national payment card system (NBTS). Regarding the second question, the active work of the Working GroupIt came in mid-1996.At this point, the body entered the stage of development and the formation of a pilot project, which was supposed to operate national system of payment cards.NBTS, according to experts of the World Monetary Fund, would require $ 5 million.These funds should be enough to implement the network.Under the terms of the Monetary Fund 50% of the specified amount was allocated directly to them, but the remaining half of the Russian Federation should draw from their sources.Credit card companies that were present in the composition of the Working Group at the time, were ready to finance 50% of the project.They confirmed their agreement official letters.But, as the leadership of the Bank of Russia has decided to concentrate its efforts on the development of other areas of the payment system, in mid-1996, the functioning of other organs of the International Committee as well as directly by the Working Group was terminated.Management efforts were primarily focused on the formation of the project on transfer of large amounts of bulk operations and money.
To Russian national payment system started to function, the regulatory framework was necessary.At the beginning of the development projects it was not.In this regard, at the beginning of 2000.It adopted a number of laws.However, in the process of approval of the rules it was lost a few important points.In the next stage the task of financing the project is no longer standing.However, the banks were unable to reach a consensus about who exactly will receive profit from it.Huge market yield to no organization wanted.This sector brings significant income from commissions for the transaction.While Russian banks agreed, the market has been divided by international payment systems "Master Card" and "Visa".Some domestic financial companies have formed a partnership group.Customers served by these banks in ATMs of all associations.The largest group is considered "United Settlement Network."It involved about 100 ATMs of banks.
National Payment System of Russia: the next stage
In 2010, carried out the development of federal laws aimed at regulating the provision of municipal and state services.Its provisions provided that will operate the National Payment System of Russia, and will be banned treatment of domestic transactions abroad.However, that fact drew the attention of the US Embassy in Moscow.It became clear that in case of abandonment of the bill without changes in the company "Master-Card" and "Visa" will lose market with revenue of about 4 billion dollars. USA.On this occasion the ambassadors was drafted telegram, addressed to high-ranking civil servant of America.The text of the staff recommended to use a meeting with colleagues from the Russian Federation to provide the last pressure to change the bill.Thus provides a guarantee to protect the interests of American companies, exclude the possibility of harm to them.In the published act was no ban on the processing of domestic transactions abroad.
Federal Law "On the National Payment System"
It was adopted in 2011.Federal Law "On the National Payment System" describes the network as a set of operators engaged in money transfers.The Act establishes the basic concepts governing the provision of services.The normative act defined the rules that must operate national payment system.The network structure formed on the basis of the requirements set out in the law.Along with this it was determined the order in which would be carried out supervision and coordination.However, the Law does not establish a system of national payment cards and a ban on the processing of transactions of the Russian Federation abroad.
They were adopted in 2011.These decisions concerning the creation of a universal electronic card, precluding the participation in the process of international systems "Master Card" and "Visa".At the same time Sberbank has promised to take measures to neutralize the "lobbyists of these networks in the government of the Russian Federation."By the beginning of 2013 the Central Bank has formed a register of operators.In this base have been made all the payment systems that have worked in Russia.Among them were isolated, those who had a special social significance.These include, in particular, were considered: Contact, the network "VTB" and the Savings Bank, "Golden Crown", "Master Card", "Visa".
In March of that year the US imposed sanctions against the Russian Federation in connection with the inclusion of the last of the Crimea."Master Card" and "Visa" for the second time in the history of stop service card number of domestic banks in some ATMs and POS international network.In this regard, again the question arose about the fact that in Russia there should be a national payment system.Russia needs its own network, independent of the state of relations in the world.In this regard, it began preparing a number of amendments to the Act passed.They were supposed to facilitate information and infrastructure closure of the implementation of the transfer of sums of money in the Russian Federation.This means that the clearing and operations centers - the subjects of the National Payment System - should be placed directly in the country.At the same time, the Act provides for a ban on the provision of access and transfer of information to foreign countries to information about domestic transactions in the Russian Federation.At the end of March 2014 it began actively discuss the implementation of necessary measures.President Vladimir Putin has approved the formation of the National System by ordering as soon as possible to begin its development and implementation.