To date, issues relating to energy, regulated by several legislative acts at the federal level.In particular, the rules of procedure provided limited deliveries.Let us consider it in more detail below.
First of all, in this field, the provisions of Chapter VI of the Civil Code.They supply electricity is regarded as one of the types of transactions.The next statutory acts of the Federal Law "On Electric Power Industry".This normative act in a special manner stipulated questions outage.In particular, it is spelled out in Art.38. In accordance with the provisions of the Government of the Russian Federation approves the order, according to which is carried out partial or complete restriction of consumption participants of retail and wholesale markets.The article also defined the level of energy users in violation of its obligations, as well as the need to take urgent measures to eliminate or prevent accidents.Market rules - one more regulation, which carried out the regulation of issues related to energy supply.They approved a government decree №530.
basic requirements of the law
installed FZ procedure is used when failure to perform payment obligations and provides energy:
- Mandatory preliminary (not less than 10 days) prevention of introduction provided by a partial or full limitation mode power supplies.The notice shall contain information on the state of consumer debt, the expected duration disconnection of supply.
- ban on violation of rights of other consumers due to the restrictions imposed mode of delivery and level.
- Mandatory introduction of preliminary partial shutdowns consumption mode before the complete cessation of supplies.
- Responsibility for violation of the restrictions entailed damage to users or suppliers of electricity.
- Provision of security payment obligations prescribed by the legislation sellers categories of consumers at the expense of budgetary funds of corresponding levels.
- activities on social protection of the population of the Russian Federation, including by providing them with compensation payment for the electricity produced in accordance with the law.
- impermissible restriction on consumption mode before the expiry of the security provided from the budget of the corresponding level.
They occur due to the inability of suppliers to supply consumer products to the fullest.In this case there is a discrepancy between the needs of users to the seller.Rolling blackouts happen as a result of accidents, as well as a result of high consumer debt.
It should be noted that the rolling blackouts of electricity, as a rule, do not occur in developed countries.If they occur, the local nature and are the result of accidents.For developing countries, by contrast, blackouts considered normal practice.Usually, it is caused by a mismatch generated and supplied products to existing demand.
shows arbitration practice, rolling blackouts - this is quite an urgent problem for many businesses.The situation is aggravated by the fact that domestic legislation does not approve such actions of suppliers, since they lead to loss-making activities of the organizations.As previously mentioned, the Civil Code regulates the supply of electricity.Responsibility for failure to supplying organization established in Art.547. The Criminal Code provides penalties for the illegal suspension of the power supply, which resulted in substantial harm and threats to public health, as well as other negative consequences, including the death of citizens.Criminal liability is provided in Art.251. Federal Law №35 details the duties and rights of consumers and suppliers of electricity.At the same time the law set the rules for warranties for users.The above acts prohibit rolling blackouts consumers who do not have debts to the supplying company.
to solve the problem
in accordance with the law, in case of consumer debt, which supplies the company must find the means of influence on the user.In particular, the supplier can establish a special regime limiting partial or full delivery of products to take other measures to prevent rolling blackouts.The procedure for the suspension of supply is installed in the governmental order №530.As an exception to the general rule in favor rolling blackouts due to an emergency.In Russia, supplying companies are trying to avoid such events.Only in the '90s and early 2000s.periodically conduct rolling blackouts due to heavily indebted consumers.All other restrictions imposed solely as a result of emergencies.
May 25, 2000 in Moscow and suburbs, as well as some adjacent areas occurred blackouts light.As a result, stopped railway traffic, trapped in elevators appeared more than 1500 people, tens of thousands of people could not get out of the subway.All this happened as a result of the accident at the substation, which was part of the Moscow energy ring.The accident happened on a number of reasons.These include depreciation of equipment, hot weather, insufficient spare capacity.There have been deficiencies and weaknesses in logistics, obsolescence automatic protection.In 2009, August 17, there has been rolling blackouts light in Siberia.It was the result of state of emergency on the power plant.The accident victim had been limited to the supply of electricity in Tomsk and a number of other points, disrupted production cycle of enterprises.At the same time we can not say that such situations happen in other countries.For example, in France in 2009 it has stopped the supply of Provence.From major accident at the high-voltage main line affected about 2 million people.
Schedule rolling blackouts
It is injected at the unwillingness or inability of the Government to find a way out of the crisis.Schedule of rolling blackouts was thus introduced in Ukraine.The supply is temporarily interrupted from 9 am to 11 am, from 20 to 22 hours.In many regions, however, the suppliers do not adhere to this schedule.As a result, the duration of the trip was a lot more set 2 hours.Limiting consumption agreed with the local authorities in all regions.After warning the dispatch service 10-15 minutes after going off.In the fall of 2014 in Ukraine began the first supply constraints.So, it was produced rolling blackouts in Kharkov, Kremenchug and Kiev.This regime was needed to cover the deficit of the formed product.Since December 2014 restrictions affected the entire territory of Ukraine.In particular, there have been rolling blackouts in Dnepropetrovsk, Poltava, Cherkasy, Sumy, Chernihiv and many other areas.In warehouses of thermal power plants are low enough coal reserves, water resources are also scarce.Moreover, with the onset of cold weather has increased demand and supply companies could not cope with the increased demand.In December, in connection with the tense situation in Ukraine, conducted on a periodic rolling blackouts in the Crimea.Prior to joining the Russian peninsula supplied the Ukrainian company.However, because of the fierce conflict supplies were limited.