Attaching the Astrakhan Khanate.

Attaching the Astrakhan Khanate to Russia was historically conditioned, as several states formed as a result of the collapse of the Golden Horde and constantly warring among themselves, a threat south-eastern borders of Russia.Weaker countries, especially if she still was at the crossroads of trade routes, has always needed a strong patron.And the contenders for this role was enough.

Shard Golden Horde

Astrakhan Khanate appeared in the XVI century in the Lower Volga.It Tatar state was formed after the collapse of the Golden Horde, and it is located on the right bank of the Volga.Its capital - Xacitarxan - located 12 km from the present Astrakhan.First, in 1460 formed the Big Horde, it is a central part of the former Golden Horde.It was headed by Mahmud Khan, who was sitting in the capital - the city of Sarai.His two sons do not share power, and Hasim, lost in the lower reaches of the Volga River, created a separate state.It received full independence in 1502, after the victory of the troops of the Crimean Khanate over the forces of the Great Horde.

Good Neighbor

When Hasim between Moscow, where he was Ivan III, and Haji-Tarkhan establish trade relations.Ships with salt came from the lower reaches of the Volga River in the capital.All Russian history shows that trade with Moscow carries only benefit both parties.The Hadji Tarkhan was a huge slave market, and concentrated products from many countries.However, the Astrakhan Khanate never had a strong independent power.Being in a very convenient location, it has always been coveted prey for its neighbors and beyond.Crimean and Kazan Khanate Nogai Horde, a state formed as a result of the collapse of the Golden Horde, and located between the Volga and the Urals, Khorezm - they were not averse to seize a weaker neighbor.Even Turkey tried to establish the khanate of the control.

Double Game

Attaching the Astrakhan Khanate was getting on the agenda.All the rulers of the Tatar state with Moscow led a double play.Despite the obvious benefits of trade and friendship with Russia, Khan Abdul Rahman signed a secret agreement with the Crimea and Turkey.Though earlier, in 1533, under the influence of the "Russian party" formed in his court and generously bribed Russia, Astrakhan Khanate concluded with Moscow an expanded trade and political agreement, in which they talked about friendship and mutual assistance.The direct connection of the Astrakhan Khanate began under Ivan the Terrible.Moscow protege Dervis Ali and Abdul-Rahman from 1533 to 1556 several times succeeded each other on the throne.

protege of the Crimea and Turkey

Only in 1552-1554 years in their struggle succeeded in penetrating another protege of Crimea - Yamgurchi whose behavior, including the arrest and exile of the Russian ambassador, so outraged by the then ruler of Russia, they in 1554he was taken first trip to the walls Xacitarxan.But the accession of the Astrakhan Khanate had not yet been the goal.He wanted to put in a strong vassal of Moscow, set him on the throne of the same Dervis Ali.On the one hand, after the fall of Kazan, Astrakhan Principality, feeling vulnerable, no longer behave provocatively with Moscow.On the other - intensified joint action of the Crimea and Turkey, which provided support Yamgurchi.Robbery and link to one of the islands of the Caspian Sea, Ambassador Sebastiano Abraham so infuriated Ivan the Terrible, down the Volga that was sent to Strugi well-equipped 30-thousand troops.They led Ignatius Veshnyakov Yuri Pronskiy-Shemyakin.From this part of the driving forces and Dervis Ali.Prince Vyazemsky with a detachment of 2,500 men and Danila stockings with large formations of Cossacks were separate.

lack of pragmatism

entire Russian history teaches the enemies of our country do not insult her, and behave with great power with respect, because the car will come necessarily."Astrakhan affair" began in May.All the Russian troops were to meet and unite in the area of ​​the narrowest point between the Volga and the Don, called Perevoloki.This also had to approach troops Nogai Horde-Ismail Khan, assisted by the official version has undertaken a campaign.They did not come, probably because the "East - a delicate matter."Still troops Viazemsky Pronsky and utterly smashed emerged to meet them defenders of the Astrakhan Khanate, among whom were the Janissaries.Yamgurchi fled to Azov, leaving everything - wives (Hanshi), children harem.The capital was taken without a fight.On the throne was planted by Moscow, solemnly swore allegiance to her.

Again the same "rake»

But the actual accession of the Astrakhan Khanate happened later.And then there is the tribute set to pay was excessive (1200 rubles in silver, 3000 2.5-meter sturgeon, free trade throughout the Khanate), or the air in the capital was such, but Dervish Ali three times perching on Moscowthrone, secretly sided with the Crimea and Turkey.The combined efforts of the grouping seeks escape Ismail, and obnaglev finally Astrakhan Khan sends from the Russian capital governor.They, of course, asked for it, and now the absolute and the actual accession of the Astrakhan Khanate to Russia was inevitable.

punish and attach

purpose of the second march to Astrakhan, launched in the spring of 1556, it was the complete elimination of the independence of the khanate.Joint army, in fact, it was punitive.It consisted of archers and Vyatskie militia, Don and Volga Cossacks to march each on their own to bring together near Astrakhan.The total number of troops did not exceed 3,000, indicating that the weakness of impudent Khanate.In fact, the city was taken only come to its walls the first detachment of the Volga Cossacks led Lyapunov Filimonov.And although the company during Dervis Ali managed to pull forces of the Russian troops, victory was complete, and Astrakhan without any contracts entered into Russia.

Next - Urals and North Caucasus

Attaching the Astrakhan Khanate, the date of which - August 26, 1556, was anemic and has played a crucial role in the final disintegration of the remnants of the Golden Horde.Gradually, they were part of the Russian or recognized vassal dependence on it: in 1557 - the Nogai Horde, and then in the same year Bashkiria.And in 1560 the Russian state border in the east of the Urals already held, in the south-east - along the Terek.In essence, the Kazan and Astrakhan khanate his fall opened the way for the promotion of Russia's Ural, Terek and Kuban.And then before our country was a question of penetration in the Urals and the North Caucasus.But it was a question of Russia's foreign policy in the future, and in the XVI century by Ivan the Terrible was attached Volga completely, which provided free trade.In addition, the conquest of Astrakhan Khanate provided protection of borders between Russia and the south of the Crimean Khanate, a strong and permanent enemy.