Navy - the inheritance of only the most advanced military and industrialized countries.You can buy a ship, but to create the necessary infrastructure for it will not turn out.It is not surprising that the state of the shipbuilding industry in our country caused the deepest gloom Seamen: the new ships were not built, the old gradually develop the resource.Fortunately, the situation is slowly beginning to improve.Visual proof - the frigate "Admiral Gorshkov".
It was launched on October 29, 2010.This event is unique in that it is not only the first ship Launched after the collapse of the Union, but also the first example of this kind of technology, which was designed "from scratch", without the use of Soviet developments.
On the history of
Immediately after the country had the money to the deployment of a new shipbuilding program, were laid down and launched the submarine project 955, 885 and 667. Soon it was the turn of surface ships.New frigate "Admiral Gorshkov" Project 22350 was created by experts KB "North."Chief designer of the project was P.M.Shrayko.Bookmark the ship took place in 2006.As expected, the first Project 22350 frigate built much longer than intended, but still managed to shipbuilders meet the reasonable period, in spite of all the difficulties.
draft of the new ship was designed and approved in 2003.When, in 2005, its construction was declared a public tender, there was just three major artist who would very much like to just a tidbit not got competitors, "Severnaya Verf", "amber" and "Sevmash".In the end, the right to build left for St. Petersburg, "Severnaya Verf".Experience has shown that it was the right decision.
importance of ships of the project 22350 for the country's defense
's no words will surprise that the coastline of our country as a different length, and its difficult terrain.The problem of our fleet is that it includes a plurality of morally and technically obsolete ships, which in the case of a massive attack potential enemy simply can neither protect such a large area, or even normally interact with each other and other branches of the Russian Navy.Frigate "Admiral Gorshkov" Against this background, is well positioned as a multi-purpose combat unit.
Thus, Russia in the shortest time necessary to lower the water as much as possible the modern Coast Guard ships that are equipped with effective SAM and RCC.This will build a normal defense of the coast, without having to use the more expensive specimens of weapons.In a similar way today is the United States.The military leadership of the country as time focuses on the construction of a large number of relatively inexpensive and functional vehicles intended for the protection of coastal waters.
should be noted that especially in need the Black Sea Fleet.The fact that this is our group is at a great distance from the other fighting fleets.During the "management" of Ukrainians in the land of the Crimea, there is almost no normal air and missile defense systems.And those who still remain, can not effectively cover against possible enemy strike the remaining territory.The only ship that more or less corresponds to the flagship of the Black Sea Fleet, GvRKr Project 1164.5 "Moscow".Not only that he is one, so also the ship's combat systems obviously do not meet modern requirements.
It installed S-300F "Fort", which is fully unified with the "land" anti-aircraft missile system S-300PS.The maximum height of hitting targets - up to 27 kilometers.At the same time, you can capture up to six air targets at a distance of 90 kilometers.As you can see, nothing outstanding, our air defense forces in a new region of the Federation can not boast.It was to remedy this situation in recent years began intensive construction of new types of ships, and one of the most impressive is just the same Project 22350 frigate "Admiral Gorshkov".
ship is good because it is designed to work in both the near and the far sea zone, as well as for combat operations in oceanic conditions.Displacement - about 4,500 tons, maximum length - not less than 130 m, width of the body at its widest point - 16 meters.The length of the course - more than four thousand nautical miles of navigation season is not limited.In addition to powerful artillery and missiles, there is a platform for the adoption of a combat helicopter (Ka-28).
Among other things, the frigate "Admiral Gorshkov" is unique in that its structure is used at least 30% of completely new technologies and materials.Competing in the Americans, aft superstructure and deckhouse created by technology "stealth", which provides a strong scattering of radar waves, the ship ensuring a high degree of secrecy.Not surprisingly, the degree of secrecy in its design was a "level": the appearance of the "Admiral" was known only to the designers and shipbuilders.The press did not leaked to the launching.
Frigate "Admiral Gorshkov" (Picture in 2014 convincingly prove it) carries on board an impressive military complex.It consists of a battery of anti-ship missiles ("Mosquito"), an artillery unit with a caliber of 130 mm (rate of 30 rounds per minute), as well as anti-aircraft missile battery and the anti-missile complex.Thus, the Project 22350 frigate "Admiral Gorshkov" is notable for a protected and able to stand up for themselves in any situation.
Antisubmarine defense ship
Antisubmarine armament consists from two launch complexes Medvedka-2.They are located in the middle of the ship.Each launcher is charged with four missiles with active guidance.For the detection of enemy submarines sonar system responds "Dawn-M."Subsequently, the station is planned to replace this type on its advanced analog, "vignette-M."
The structure of these devices includes a flexible antenna (GPBA) and the radiator, which can provide effective detection of low-noise submarines of the latest generation.Among other things, the same system can effectively pinpoint torpedoes and surface ships of the enemy at a distance of 60 km.Thus, knock out the frigate "Admiral Gorshkov", using the normal torpedo attack almost impossible.
protection of military aviation
real highlight of the ship is to set 3S14U1 (UKSK).Rocket, of course.This unique set of their "omnivorous": at any time to replace the ammunition, resulting in the specification of the ship will also change.In addition, it is necessary to dwell on the characteristics of anti-aircraft, "Rif-M."Tell me that in the press it is often called the "Poliment-Redoute."
so.Some impressive live performance "Reef" is no different, but completely unified with the land "Vityaz".Of course, it is on hand as the sailors and their land "colleagues", because you can replenish ammo virtually anywhere there's air defense.In order not to leave the flying enemies no chance on the ship and installed a new type of radar, characterized by high performance in the field of early warning aircraft.
responsible for it just four phased array (AESA) "Poliment."Experts believe that in the future vehicles of this type will be set single fire control system, as well as setting the A-192 and Zach "Broadsword".By the way speaking, the past is already installed on the frigate "Admiral Gorshkov" (which has a photo in the article).Their task is to cover staff onboard Ka-28 during its takeoff and landing.All available combat elements operate in a single circuit, providing reliable protection from the frigate combat aircraft and helicopters.
protection circuit can ship one "approach" to capture and maintain 16 flying objects at once.Especially when shooting interception - up one rocket per second.Even if someone will be able to break through 22350 frigate "Admiral Gorshkov" almost certainly knock it out of artillery systems.The combination of automatic cannon caliber 130 mm and the automatic guidance system - a terrible thing.Do not forget about the powerful on-board electronic warfare, which is able to almost completely suppress the computer guidance system of enemy missiles.This not only significantly increases the degree of protection "Admiral", but also allows you to dramatically reduce the burden on the crew in a combat situation.
And about anti-aircraft armament
Not so long ago it became known that in MNIIRE "Altair" is under way to develop a new compact system designed to protect warships with a displacement of 1,000 to 4,500 tons.New anti-aircraft gun will be based on well-proven SAM "Rif-M."It is expected that it will use missiles 9M96E characterized by an active homing and target lock system inertia.The combination of these systems will create a truly formidable weapon capable of intercepting highly maneuverable aircraft with a high probability of failure.
This differs from its competitors frigate "Admiral Gorshkov".Photos of the ship is able to immediately prove to the experts that he is able to easily handle the majority of combat aircraft likely opponent.
In general, it is not surprising: diesel gas turbine plant, whose capacity is about 65 000 hpIt refers to the type CODAG, diesel engine itself belongs to the family DGTA-M55MR (all in one package).Such a design solution has allowed to combine both high maximum power and best efficiency when driving at low speed (sea trials of the frigate "Admiral Gorshkov" is clearly shown).
turbine unit is located in the forward compartment, diesel is traditionally located on the stern.
detailed description of the installation of diesel
proven manufacturer of diesel engines 10D49 is Kolomna factory.The capacity of each of 3825 kW (5200 hp), they are fully automated.On each - two-speed reduction gear, which is responsible for the separate or joint operation of the two engines.Finally, there is local control system.Themselves as gas turbines, turbine engine M90FR, designed by two renowned companies - "Saturn" and NPP "Dawn - Mashproekt."
None of these companies would have been impossible itself frigate "Admiral Gorshkov".2014 proved that the management of the fleet is very grateful to them, as both companies have received generous government contracts.It is hoped that such a favorable trend will continue in the future.
Only one diesel power plant ship will issue immediately 10,400 HP, which would be enough to break up to 10-13 knots.If both are working diesels and turbine power grows right up to 64800 hp, so the machine of four thousand tons displacement accelerated to 30 knots.Why are we all so much detail listed?What do you think, why is the performance of ship propulsion was not used in the ships of the Soviet fleet?It's simple: no one wanted to take responsibility as the development of a complex system.The system, which had to be not only strong, but extremely reliable.
In this area, Russian shipbuilders were able to get around their Soviet colleagues that pleases, since the ship "Admiral Gorshkov" - is a true "first-born" post-Soviet shipbuilders.In this it is similar to the fighter T-50.This aircraft is also designed "from scratch" is Russian developers.
Speaking generally, the "Admiral Gorshkov" - the frigate, in many respects is a fairly typical representative of Soviet-Russian shipbuilding school.However, for the first time in the history of our fleet on a surface ship missiles placed in mines.By the way speaking, our American "colleagues" have long come to the need of such placement is this type of arms, as in this case it is possible to eliminate the "zoo" settings to run, which is so characteristic of the Soviet Navy.This will greatly reduce the cost of operation of ships, as you will need to cook much less specialists.
Alas, the Russian Navy until 2010 did not have the unification in this field.Moreover, each (!) Missile system had its own specific application.Last fact almost put an end to the idea of creating a multipurpose ships.If our shipbuilding industry will take the path that paved the ship "Admiral Gorshkov", the fleet finally got really universal, flexible and powerful weapons, which can be used effectively throughout the Russian coastline.
Because of what the "Admiral Gorshkov" for so long was introduced into the system?
main problem, because of which constantly had to postpone, chronic lateness was a turn of separate systems.Yes, the cruiser "Admiral Gorshkov" built the St. Petersburg shipyard, but because all the weapons, radar systems and underwater acoustics provide a completely different contractors!On them lies the lion's share of responsibility for the postponement of the delivery of the frigate.In particular, a lot of problems brought SAM systems and underwater acoustics.In addition, a couple of times frustrated the delivery of components for the new artillery system, without which the frigate pr. 22350 "Admiral Gorshkov" would be a little superior to what the ships of the same class.
both domestic Admiralty solves the problem of a lack of ships?
In principle, there is the right decision, which is now being actively used.It is a hasty "reproduction" of ships, which could act in a tactical niche.Since at this point the project 22350 frigates being built fast enough, it was decided to step up the construction of cheaper vehicles, belonging to the family 11356 (six of them had acquired India).Despite their unification, they will be used in various fleets.Unfortunately, completely do without the confusion in the nomenclature will not be possible now.The only consolation is that it will not be as confusing as it was in the days of the Union.
If we evaluate readiness frigates of Project 22350 designed for retrofitting the Black Sea Fleet should say the following.It is supposed to launch six ships.Frigate "Admiral Grigorovich" is expected to enter service around in the second half 2015.His "brother", "Admiral Essen," will begin to surf the waters of the Black Sea in 2016.The ship "Admiral Makarov" is unlikely to be ready before 2017.
Even if we take into account the dramatically increase public spending in the shipbuilding industry and loading industrial enterprises in the Crimea, re fleet risks severely delayed.Thus, the frigate "Admiral Gorshkov", which tests have shown impressive results in many ways is the only viable alternative.One can only hope that the domestic industry will sustain this momentum.
Whatever it was, the construction of the frigate "Admiral Gorshkov" clearly shows a sharp intensification of our shipbuilding industry.Never before since the early 1990s, the fleet did not get so many new ships.That's only because of the frequent supply disruptions Navy gets more of the same type frigates, which often can only be used in a tactical niche.As you can imagine, this situation is not too good for the common defense.
In a plan to blame the military themselves, who are not always willing to provide producers distinct and detailed TOR.Furthermore, even when performing the construction of the frigate "Admiral Gorshkov", often make adjustments to its appearance, which other countries can not be.There are also problems with the newly developed projects of new classes of ships, which simply have not yet created adequate weapons.Lapping them "on the fly" not only leads to a catastrophic rise in the cost of construction, but also to stretch deadlines to excessive quantities.
from factory to factory projects are also transmitted without going through a huge amount of red tape.Setting up equipment, programs and projects fit the peculiarities of each shipyard is done virtually in manual mode.