The deepest lake in the world.

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«Baikal, it would seem, should suppress the human with its grandeur and dimensions - there still big, still widely freely and mysterious - it is, on the contrary, exalt him."These are the words of Rasputin, largely affect the fate of the Russian Empire, a giant, influence Russia and the world so far.

But what is it in reality?Is the image in the subconscious of what appears before the eyes of travelers, tourists, photographers, researchers?What is the deepest lake in the world, really?Let's try to learn Baikal closer.

How went Baikal?

Baikal - a crack in the earth's crust, the deepest lake in the world, located in the middle of Asia, between Buryatia and Irkutsk region.The depression is the center of the so-called Baikal Rift Zone, under which the magma heats the bark and it spreads to the sides.As a result, Lake Baikal is growing at 2 cm per year, and in the distant future will be a full-fledged sea.Although now there's so much water that every person on earth is enough for 3.2 million liters.

believed that the formation of the basin began around 25-20 million years ago.But as a result of the expedition "Mirs on Baikal" in 2009, researchers from Ulan-Ude on the lake bottom mud volcanoes found that, according to the hypothesis, formed the deposits of sand and silt on the bottom.Such a discovery "rejuvenated" the reservoir to 150 thousand years old, and the coastline - up to 8000.

Peoples of Lake Baikal and the legend

results of archaeological research of the Irkutsk State University said that 3000 years ago the Huns inhabited the shore of Lake Baikal.2000-1500 years ago, they separated themselves from the Turkic-speaking peoples, and a little later - in 7-8 centuries - and Mongol.

to 12-13 centuries.BC inhabited Baikal Barghouti, which eventually supplanted the Buryats, who live on the lake so far.Baikal is sacred for Buryats.Its origins steeped in legend.

One of them claims that the deepest lake in the world came from the heart of a stranger, which burned through the land.From the depths of the earth flooded with water and filled the pit.

Secret enveloped valleys and mountains.For example, Shaman rock on the island.Pass by her RV impossible.Only a horse or sleigh.All because the owner lives in the stone of the Angara, Ama Sagan-Noyon.And the Shaman-stone - is part of the rock, which killed his daughter Baikal Angara.

Why "Baikal"?

Perhaps, once lived in the Baikal region the Turks called the deepest lake in the world buy-Kul, which means "rich lake".It is likely that by the Mongolian dalai Baigal, meaning "great lake", and became his name.Discovery of Lake Baikal

With the advent of people on Lake Baikal began studying it.The results of "science" of ancient peoples can be seen at Cape Ludar in caves with petroglyphs of Neolithic and Chinese chronicles the beginning of our era.

starting point for the study of Russian Baikal can be considered mid-17th century.In 1643 Kurbat Ivanov opened the lake.Avvakum Petrov, first described on paper majestic giant.In 1667, the deepest lake in the world for the first time got the card in the "blueprint Siberian Land", and a little later Nikolai Spafary described it scientifically.

Education Academy of Sciences gave impetus to the study of the lake.Since 1723 in the Baikal region were held geographic, cartographic, hydrographic expedition, maps were put forward hypotheses on the origin of the pond.

achievements of scientific and technical progress in the 20th century prompted the study of Lake Baikal to new heights.Dive deep-water craft, including by researchers on board the drilling floor, working neutrino telescope - the deepest lake in Russia offers huge potential for scientific research.

Baikal flora and fauna

high ridges and deep valleys, steppe and taiga, a unique water - conditions for wildlife pond and the Baikal region.The deepest lake in the world - a fine example of a closed ecosystem.

It is found more than 50 species of fish, 27 of which - are endemic, that is not found anywhere else.Omul, golomyanka, pike, salmon, Amur catfish - all that is rich in the deepest and cleanest lake, you name it.

forests surrounding the lake, filled with more than 80 and 230 species of birds and animals, respectively.Bear, wild boar, cormorants, red deer, blue nightingale, eagle, deer, musk deer, wolverine, sable, seal, symbol of fauna of Lake Baikal - this is an incomplete list of living creatures occurring in protected forests and waters of a reservoir.Siberian larch, 37 species of ferns, cedars, unique seaweed - a unique flora.

environmental threat

Baikal region, divided into five nature reserves and 3 national parks, in need of protection.In '66 the 20th century on the southern coast was commissioned pulp and paper mill.From this moment it is counting environmental crimes.

Poisonous plant effluents have led to the disastrous state of 10 square meters.km and water on the surface of 70 sq.km area at the bottom.MPC phenols, petrochemicals, sulphates exceeded at times.

to pollution from pulp and paper mill in the late 90s added underground gasoline lake.18 thousand tons of gasoline near the glass factory in Ulan-Ude Baikal threatened status.

The Baikal lives?

While environment is not entirely bad, the deepest lake in Russia feeds all.

hunters ply ringed seal - meat, skin, fat.Fishermen sell cisco in three forms, as well as its eggs, grayling, burbot.Golomyanka - fish, half made up of fat, actively sold to tourists.

Pine nuts, cedar oil, Siberian herbs, jewelry from local charoite - stone unique lilac, souvenirs, musical instruments - everything is for sale.

Baikal Ice and

When it comes to ice - from October to June - the life of the inhabitants varies.Anglers go gently on ice fishing, ride on the Irkutsk Buryats side.But heavy traffic does not begin until February - after a complete strengthening peel.

Ice brings danger.Ridges as high as a man is not so terrible.They can be avoid.Insidiously becomes the gap.Sudden drop with a loud bang, opened his jaws wide, they absorb themselves in everything around.So terrible way killed more than one hundred people careless.

During the winter ice grows to 100-120 cm, sometimes up to 150. In this case, it is surprisingly transparent as glass.Ice lasts until the beginning of June.Back in May, it is possible to walk in summer clothes, because the climate is mild Baikal region in Siberia, on average, -20 in winter and sunny days more than in the southern regions of the country.

Rest on Lake Baikal

unusual nature and monumental beauty to his pulling campers.In winter, the deepest lake in the world pulls skiing, skating, snowboarding, snowmobiling, off-road vehicles, to engage in ice fishing and hunting.Photos from Baikal produced an incredibly beautiful and attractive.

can stay at recreation centers.They are mainly located in the Irkutsk side.Buryat - mostly reserves.

With the arrival of summer, new entertainment.The wide expanse of water draws kiteboarders, kayakers and lovers of calm water trips on ships.Mountains, hills and forests are ideal for mountain biking, downhill and heavy hiking.Conquerors of the mountains appreciate Cherskii altitude - 2588 meters and Class 2A.

swim at Lake Baikal - a feat.Above 12 degrees water temperature rises.With that, the sand on the beaches of the highest standard.If you still do not want to leave without a photo of themselves in the waters of the lake, you should look for bays.As the water warms them stronger.You can also visit the so-called Small Sea.This strait separating the total water area of ​​the island Olkhon.

Baikal - the deepest lake in the world - ideal for families.Recreation rooms offer a wide variation of comfort.Geothermal and magical air heal any body and soul.