Not all people know what famous May 24, but impossible to imagine what would have become of us if that day in 863 year has been a completely different writing and creators abandoned their labors.
who created the Slavic alphabet in the 9th century?They were Cyril and Methodius, and the event occurred exactly 863 years May 24, which led to the celebration of one of the most important events in human history.Now the Slavic peoples could use their own written and not borrow the languages of other peoples.
creators of Slavic Literature - Cyril and Methodius?
History of Slavic Literature is not as "transparent" as it may seem at first glance, there are different opinions about its creator.There is an interesting fact that Kirill, even before I started working on the creation of the Slavic alphabet was in the Chersonese (now the Crimea), which was able to take the sacred writings of the Gospel, or Psalter, which already at that time turned out to be precisely written letters of the Slavic alphabet.This fact makes you wonder: who has created the Slavic alphabet, Cyril and Methodius really wrote the alphabet or have finished work?
However, apart from the fact that Kirill finished alphabet brought from Kherson, there is other evidence that the creators of the Slavic alphabet were other people, and lived long before Cyril and Methodius.
Arab sources historical events say that in 23 years before Cyril and Methodius created the Slavic alphabet, namely in the 40s of the IX century, were baptized people, in whose hands were books written it in the Slavonic language.There is also another serious fact proves that the creation of the Slavic alphabet was earlier stated dates.The bottom line is that Pope Leo IV had the certificate issued to 863 years, which is consisted of the letters of the Slavic alphabet, and on the throne of this figure was in the range from 847 to 855 years of IX century.
other, but also important fact evidence of more ancient origin of Slavic Literature is the approval of Catherine II, who during his reign, wrote that the Slavs more ancient people than is commonly believed, and the script they have since the days,prior to Christmas.
Evidence of ancient Slavic language other peoples
Create Slavic Literature to 863 years may prove other facts that are present in the documents of the other peoples who lived in ancient times and using other kinds of writing at the time.Such sources are quite a few and they are found in the Persian historian by the name of Ibn Fodlan, at El Massoudi, as well as in a bit later artists in the fairly well-known works, which says that the Slavic alphabet was formed before the Slavs appeared book.
historian, who lived on the border of IX and X century, argued that the Slavic people more ancient and more advanced than the Romans, and as proof, he cited some of the sites that allow you to determine the origin of ancient Slavic people and their writing.
And the last fact, which can seriously affect the thinking of people in search of an answer to the question of who created the Slavic alphabet - is a coin with different letters of the Russian alphabet, dated to earlier dates than 863 years,and stay in European countries such as Britain, Scandinavia, Denmark and others.
Disclaimer ancient origin of Slavic Literature
Estimated creators of Slavic Writing a little "missed" one: they do not leave any books and documents written in this ancient language.However, for many scientists enough that there is a Slavic alphabet in different stones, rocks, weapons and household items that were used by the ancient inhabitants in their daily lives.
Many scientists have been working on the study of historical achievements in writing of the Slavs, but the senior researcher by the name of Grinevitch could reach almost to the source, and his work made it possible to decrypt any text written in Old Slavonic language.
Job Grinevitch in the study of Slavic Literature
In order to understand the written language of the ancient Slavs, Grinevich had to do a great job, during which he discovered that it was not based on the letters, but had a more complex system, which is operated bysyllables.The scientist himself completely seriously believed that the formation of the Slavic alphabet began 7000 years ago.
Signs Slavic alphabet had a different basis, and after the grouping of all the characters Grinevitch identified four categories: linear separators, picturesque and restrictive signs.
To investigate Grinevitch used about 150 different labels, which are present at all sorts of things, and all his achievements were based on the decoding of these symbols.
Grinevitch The study found that the history of Slavic Literature older and ancient Slavs used the 74 mark.However, such a number of alphabet characters too much, and if we talk about the whole words, in language they can not be just 74. These considerations led the researchers to believe that in the alphabet of the Slavs used syllables instead of letters.
Example: "horse" - the syllable "lo»
His approach has allowed to decipher the inscriptions on which fought many scientists and could not understand what they mean.And it turned out that all fairly simple:
- pot, which was found near Ryazan, had an inscription - the instructions, which stated that it should be put into the oven and close.
- Georgia, which was found near the town of Trinity, was a simple inscription: "weighs 2 ounces."
All of the above evidence to refute the full extent of what the creators of the Slavic Literature - Cyril and Methodius, and prove the antiquity of our language.
Slavic runes in the creation of the Slavic alphabet
One who created the Slavic alphabet, was quite clever and brave man, because such an idea at that time could destroy the creator due to ignorance of other people.But apart from the letters were invented, and other options spread informing people - Slavic runes.
total in the world found 18 runes that are present on a large number of different ceramics, stone statues and other artifacts.One example is the pottery from the village Lepesovka, located in the southern Volyn, and an earthen vessel in the village of Branch.In addition to evidence located in the territory of Russia, there are monuments that are located in Poland and were discovered in 1771.They also present the Slavic runes.Do not forget Radegast temple, located in retreat, where the walls are decorated with precisely the Slavic characters.The latter place that scientists have learned from Thietmar of Merseburg, a fortress-temple and is located on an island called Ruegen.There are a large number of idols, whose names are written with runes Slavic origin.
Slavic writing.Cyril and Methodius, the creators
Creating writing attributed to Cyril and Methodius, and confirmation given the historical data of the corresponding period of their lives, which is described in some detail.They affect the meaning of their work and the reasons for the work on the creation of new characters.
Cyril and Methodius to the creation of the alphabet brought the conclusion that other languages may not fully reflect the Slavic speech.This constraint is proved works monk brave, which noted that prior to the adoption of the Slavic alphabet into general use baptism performed either in Greek or in Latin, and in those days it became clear that they can not reflect all the sounds that filled our speech.
political influence on the Slavic alphabet
Policy began its impact on society at the outset of origin countries and religions, and she also had a hand in the Slavic alphabet, as well as to other aspects of people's lives.
As described above, the service on the baptism of the Slavs were conducted either in Greek or in Latin, which allowed other churches influence on the minds and in the minds of the Slavs to strengthen the idea of their dominant role.
Those countries where the liturgy were not conducted in Greek and Latin, have received growing influence of German priests in the faith of the people, and for the Byzantine church this was unacceptable, and she made a reciprocal step, instructing Cyril and Methodius the creation of writing, on whichService will be written and sacred texts.
Byzantine church rightly argued at the time, and her designs were such that the one who created the Slavic alphabet based on the Greek alphabet, will weaken the influence of the German Church Slavic countries all at the same time and thus help bring together people with Byzantium.These actions may also be considered as dictated by self-interest.
who created the Slavic alphabet based on the Greek alphabet?Cyril and Methodius created, and for this work they were chosen not by chance that the Byzantine church.Cyril grew up in the city of Thessalonica, who, though he was a Greek, but about half of its residents fluent in the Slavic language, and Cyril himself well versed in it, and also had an excellent memory.
Byzantium and its role
about when work began on the creation of the Slavic alphabet, being rather serious disputes, because May 24 - this is the official date, but history has a big gap in time, creating a mismatch.
After Byzantium gave it a difficult task, Cyril and Methodius began development of Slavic literature and in the year 864 arrived in Moravia with a ready Slavic alphabet and translated the Gospel completely, where students gathered for the school.
After receiving the job from the Byzantine church of Cyril and Methodius are sent to Morven.During their journey they are engaged in writing the alphabet and the translation of the texts of the Gospel to the Slavic language, and already upon arrival to the city in their hands are ready to work.However, the road to Moravia takes not so much time.Perhaps this time period, and allows you to create the alphabet, but translated the writing of the Gospel in such a short time is simply impossible, indicating that the advance work on the Slavic languages and translated texts.
disease Cyril and his departure
After three years of work in their own school of Slavonic Literature Cyril rejects the case and went to Rome.This turn of events was caused by the disease.Cyril left everything for the sake of a quiet death in Rome.Methodius, being alone, continues to pursue its goal and steps back, but now it has become more difficult, because the Catholic church began to understand the magnitude of the work done, and not happy about this.The Roman church ban on transfers to the Slavic language and openly demonstrated his displeasure, but the followers of Methodius now have, and continue to help his case.
Cyrillic and Glagolitic - which marked the beginning of modern writing?
no proven facts that can prove which of the scripts was born earlier, and there is no precise information about who created the Slavic alphabet in Russia, and which of the two possible put his hand Kirill.We only know one thing, but the most important thing - it became the founder of today Cyrillic Russian alphabet, and thanks to her we can write as we write today.
Cyrillic alphabet is composed of 43 letters, and the fact that its founder was Cyril, it proves the presence of 24 letters of the Greek alphabet.And the other 19 creators of Cyrillic alphabet based on the Greek alphabet included solely to reflect the complex sounds that were present only among the peoples who used the Slavic language to communicate.
Over time the Cyrillic alphabet was transformed, almost always affects it in order to simplify and improve.However, there were moments that made it difficult at first letter, for example, the letter "e", which is similar to "e", the letter "d" - analog "and".Such letters spelling it difficult at first, but reflect the corresponding sounds.
Glagolitic, in fact, is an analogue of the Cyrillic alphabet, and used 40 letters, and 39 of them were taken because of the Cyrillic alphabet.The main difference Glagolitic is that it has a more rounded style of writing, and it is not inherent awkwardness, unlike Cyrillic.
Vanished alphabet (Glagolitic), though not caught, but heavily used by the Slavs living in the southern and western latitudes, and, depending on the location of residents, it had its own style of writing.Slavs living in Bulgaria, used for writing Glagolitic more rounded style, and gravitated to the angularity of the Croatian letter.
Despite the number of hypotheses and even the absurdity of some of them, each is worthy of attention, and you can not accurately answer, who the creators of the Slavic alphabet.The answers will be vague, with many flaws and shortcomings.Although there are many facts that refute the creation of writing Cyril and Methodius, are awarded honors for his work, which made it possible to spread the alphabet and to transform today's species.